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close this bookSolar Cookers in the Third World (GTZ, 1990)
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View the documentAcknowledgements
View the document1. Introduction
Open this folder and view contents2. Solar Cookers and Solar Cooker Projects
Open this folder and view contents3. Conditions of Acceptance for Solar Cookers
View the document4. Questions Concerning Solar Cookers and Solar Cooker Projects
View the document5. References
Open this folder and view contentsAppendix 1: Solar Cooking Devices
View the documentAppendix 2: Self-construction Directions for the ULOG Tropical
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4. Questions Concerning Solar Cookers and Solar Cooker Projects

As indicated by the above considerations, there are many questions to be asked in connection with solar cooker projects. Those questions are listed below in the form of a questionnaire. The more affirmative answers given, the better the conditions for solar cooking. Only a detailed on-the-spot analysis will show just which of the following questions are the most essential:

Solar energy supply
1. Does the solar energy supply suffice to allow the nearconstant utilization of solar cookers?
2. Is the solar energy supply adequately uniform and usually predictable?
3. Is the solar cooker able to utilize both direct and indirect/diffuse radiation?
4. Does the topographical situation of the target area favor the use of solar cookers?
5. Can the solar cooker be used from shortly after sunrise until shortly before sunset?
6. Are the reduced seasonal insolation levels (rainy season, wintertime, ...) still acceptable?

Energy demand
7. Is the energy consumption of the target population distinctly on the rise?
8. Are the needy in a precarious situation with regard to the availability of energy?
9. Does the target group consume disproportionate amounts of energy in their households (compared to other uses, e.g. for transportation)?
10. Is the.procurement of energy for cooking an especially urgent social problem among the needy?
11. Does the target group need a conspicuously large amount of time to procure fuel for cooking?
12. Does the target group - compared to other social groups consume disproportionate amounts of energy for cooking due to their particular situation, e.g. place of residence, local customs/ ...?
13. Does relatively little household energy go for baking (bread, etc.)?
14. Is the cooking-energy price structure relatively high and/or on the rise?
15. Is most cooking done over a wood fire?
16. Is lots of charcoal used for cooking?
17. Do national energy policies promote the dissemination of solar cookers?

Social situation
18. Does the target group have enough buying power to procure and maintain a solar cooker?
19. Are solar cookers presently in use among sections of the population with a social multiplying effect?
20. Do the people's systems of values allow the use of solar cookers?
21. Would the use of a solar cooker improve the average housewife's situation, e.g. in the sense of time saved?

Dietary patterns
22. Does the target group prefer to boil (as opposed to frying, etc.) their staple dishes?
a) 1st staple food:
b) 2nd staple food:
c) 3rd staple food:
23. Are the main meals and/or ''national dishes" easy to prepare with solar cookers?
a) 1st main meal:
b) 2nd main meal:
c) 3rd main meal:
24. Are the basic breakfast dishes easy to prepare on a solar cooker?
a) 1st breakfast dish:
b) 2nd breakfast dish:
c) 3rd breakfast dish:
25. Do people eat their main meal, at midday?
26. Can the traditional methods of preparing the main meals be maintained when a solar cooker is used?
27. Does bread play a subordinate role among the main dishes?
28. Can the baked goods preferred by the target group be prepared in a solar cooker?
29. Can solar cookers be used to prepare more than just the side dishes?
30. Can the possibility of a solar cooker changing a food's flavor be ruled out?
31. Is the majority of the target group's food chopped up for cooking (as opposed to large chunks)?
32. Are the customary beverages easy to prepare on a solar cooker?
33. Is the time it takes to prepare, say, tea on a solar cooker considered acceptable?

Eating habits
34. Is breakfast eaten relatively late in the morning, i.e. long enough after sunrise?
35. Is the evening meal taken before sunset?
36. Is it easy to prepare a meal with several courses on a solar cooker?
37. Can menus for groups of substantial size, e.g. festivities, be prepared on solar cookers?

Cooking habits
38. Are the cooker and pots easily accessible?
39. Does using a solar cooker shorten the cooking time or at least not lengthen it?
40. Can cooking be interrupted without difficulty?
41. Does the solar cooking process require relatively little attendance in the way of stirring, etc.?
42. Can the cooking process and the remaining cooking time be checked without difficulty
43. Can meals be prepared in a minimum number of steps?
44. Is the cooker suitable for keeping food warm over a considerable length of time?
45. Can burned food be ruled out?

Comparison with hearths fireplaces and cookstoves
46. Is the solar cooker as versatile as the traditional cooking facilities?
47. Can meals be cooked at any time, night or day?
48. Does the solar cooker have positive side effects equal to those of traditional cooking facilities, e.g. heating, lighting, conversation?
49. Can the solar cooker be used at the same time of day as traditional cooking facilities?
50. Can the solar cooker also be used for baking, frying, etc. instead of only for cooking in the sense of boiling?
51. Does the solar cooker have an adequate food capacity (quantity)?
52. Does the solar cooker have an adequate loading capacity (Space)?
53. Can traditional cooking vessels/commercial-type pots and pans be used on the solar cooker?
54. Does the solar cooker have a modest space requirement at its place of use?
55. Is the target group extensively willing to cook outdoors?
56. Can the solar cooker be set up quickly and easily?
57. Is the solar cooker adequately stable?
58. Can the housewife stand in the shade while cooking a meal?
59. Is the height of the solar cooker about the same as that of the locally traditional cooking facilities, so that cooking can be attended to in the customary position, e.g. sitting down?
60. Is the solar cooker easy to clean, e.g. without having to be dismantled and without damage to absorbing or reflecting surfaces?
61. Does using the solar cooker make it unnecessary to use traditional cooking facilities at the same time?

Solar cooker technology
62. Is the solar cooker easy to move and to handle?
63. Is solar tracking unnecessary?
64. Can the danger of blinding or dazzling be ruled out?
65. Can other injuries as a result of using the cooker be ruled out?
66. Can the danger of injury by burning be ruled out?

Quality of design & workmanship
67. Is the solar cooker of high quality, robust and durable?
68. Does it rarely need repair?
69. Can it be made and kept in good repair using locally available materials?
70. Is the solar cooker suitable for do-it-yourself construction and repair?
71. Have only few complaints been lodged in the past?
72. Is the solar cooker technically mature?
73. Is the solar cooker children-, animal-, and fool-proof and -resistant?

74. Is the thermal output adequate?
75. Is the efficiency high enough?
76. Are the temperatures appropriate?
77. Does the cooker have a high heatup power?
78. Is it equipped for temperature control?
79. Is a constant temperature achievable?

Economic efficiency
80. Is the solar cooker inexpensive to produce?
81. Is the solar cooker inexpensive to procure?
82. Is the purchase price acceptable to the target group?
83. Is the cost of maintenance acceptably low?
84. Can considerable amounts of fuel be saved?

Direct and indirect impacts
85. Does using the solar cooker yield substantial time savings?
86. Is reduced smoke development regarded as an advantage?
87. Does using a solar cooker improve the quality of air for breathing?
88. Can unhealthy effects of cooking in the sun be ruled out?
89. Are nutritional and flavor substances preserved by solar cooking?
90. Can toxic reactions due to lengthy cooking be ruled out?
91. Would the use of solar cookers yield more than just a token improvement in the balance of payments?
92. Can the use of solar cookers be expected to have significant/relevant ecological effects?

General conditions of acceptance
93. Do (men and) women decide (together) whether or not to buy a solar cooker?
94. Have other, comparable target groups not only bought solar cookers, but also used them for a considerable length of time?
95. Is the target group aware of the firewood situation?
96. Can (especially) needy target groups in particular be expected to use solar cookers?
97. Can the use of solar cookers by middle-class families or intermediary subgroups be expected to have substantial spinoff effects on the poorer sections of the population?
98. Does the target group demonstrate a willingness and capability to accept change?