|Aquaculture - Initial Environmental Assessment Series No. 5 (NORAD, 1992)|
1. Introduce new species?
· Does the project presuppose the introduction of farm organisms or live feed which do not exist in the area originally?
· Will any imported species ("new" and genetic variants) spread into the surroundings and bring about a change in the natural composition of species and the natural productivity of the site?
· Could the new species carry bacteria, virus and parasites and spread diseases to other aquatic organisms?
· Is there sufficient control of the import of new species?
2. Affect vulnerable and conservation-worthy ecosystems and/or plant and animal species?
· Will the project, due to physical location, pollution or impacts on the composition of species and production, contribute to the alteration or destruction of mangrove swamps, coral reefs or other vulnerable and conservation-worthy ecosystems?
· Will the farming activity supplant other commercially important, vulnerable or conservation-worthy plant and animal species?
3. Affect valuable natural and cultural landscapes?
· Will the project create considerable visual changes in the landscape so as to make it less attractive for recreation and tourism?
· Will historic remains, buildings and other landscape elements that are important to the local population be affected by the project?
4. Cause waste and pollution problems?
· Will the farming activity as such, or a prospective processing plant, lead to discharges of organic matter and nutrients into water? Will the extent of this be so considerable that one can expect increased growth of unwanted algae and aquatic plants, changes in the occurrence of aquatic animals, deoxygenation in the bottom layers etc.?
· Will offal from slaughtering or other processing be stored on shore or dumped into water? Is this likely to cause problems with smell and attract animals and insects, or lead to deoxygenation of the bottom layers?
· Will the farm organisms be treated with drugs (antibiotics etc.), antifoulants and chemical pesticides (fungicides etc.)? If so: Which types and what amounts? Could these drugs be spread into the environment?
· Will the farm itself be treated with chemicals? If so: cf. the question above.
5. Spread diseases to humans?
· Will the farm organisms carry diseases or serve as intermediate hosts for parasites that infect humans?
· Will the farms cause changes in the water and waterside environment (speed of current, vegetation etc.) so as to increase the risk of spreading of water-home diseases ?
· Will the use of manure, latrine waste, sewage etc. in the production pose a health risk to those who handle or eat the farm produce?
· Is there sufficient control of the use of chemicals, and is the farm produce subjected to quality controls with respect to remnants of antibiotics and chemical pesticides?
6. Increase the water and energy requirements?
· Have the seasonal supplies of high-quality water been assessed? Has ample water supply been documented?
· Will the farming activity or prospective processing of the produce require such quantities of water that it interferes with the needs of other users?
· Will the prospective utilization of ground water lead to excessive salinity in the ground-water and a lowered ground-water table?
· Is there a risk that the evaporation of the water will be so great that it leads to an increased demand for water, or causes increased concentration of e.g. pollution in the water?
· Are there sufficient available forest and wood resources to allow a greater production of smoked fish, and materials for the building of cages and enclosures?
· Will processing and transport in association with aquaculture development lead to an increased demand for oil and electricity?
7. Change the local population's way of living and utilization of natural resources?
· Does the local population, or the project's target group, have long traditions concerning aquaculture, or does aquaculture represent something quite new?
· Does the project represent an extensive or semi-intensive form of farming which is adaptable to local conditions, or an intensive form which the locals are not qualified to handle?
· Will changes in power structure, ways of living and utilization of natural resources inderectly increase the pressure on the total natural resource base in the area?
· Will the project alter the traditional division of labour between men and women?
8. Create conflicts with existing land ownership and land use?
· Has the target group for the project title to land and water, or merely seasonal access to these resources?
· Will the project affect land or water areas which are used for transport and traffic?
· Will the project affect land which is utilized for the purposes of agriculture, forestry or animal husbandry?
9. Affect the utilization of other natural resources and lands than those directly affected by the project?
· Will the aquaculture project interfere with, or affect, already existing fisheries in the area?
· Will the project displace other activities into new areas so that the land and natural resources of the latter are over-exploited?
· Will the transfer of other activities into other sites, or new areas, create conflicts with other population groups?
· Will the project activities indirectly cause uncontrolled exploitation of other natural resources which have not been utilized before, or which have only been utilized to a slight degree?
· Will the project lead to the establishment of other
activities, e.g. industry, transport etc.? To what extent will these new
activities affect the environment? Cf. Check-lists for initial screening or the
booklets for intitial assessment of these