|Forestry Training Manual: Inter-America Region (Peace Corps, 1986)|
- To review objectives of field trip.
- To go over schedule for field trips.
- Answer questions concerning field trips.
- Trainees set personal learning goals for field trip.
The objectives for field trip(s) are presented in this session. The schedule of where and when trainees will he on field trip is carefully gone over. All questions are answered concerning objectives, schedule, meals and lodging. trainees set personal learning goals for field trip.
Exercise I: Trainer(s) give overview of field trip.
Materials: Shedule for field trip. Flip charts, marker pens, tape.
Trainer(s) give overview of following week's field trip(s) including, schedule, objectives and details concerning housing and meals. Trainees set personal learning goals for field trip.
1. Trainer(s) give overview of field trip(s).
2. Trainees individually set personal learning
3. In small groups they discuss their learning goals and make
contracts with each other for reaching goals during field trip i.e., speaking
Spanish at least 1 hour a day might be someone's goal. They could contract with
another to speak with them.
OBJECTIVES OF THE FIELD TRIP
Objectives of the field trip are the following:
1. Forest Extension - Using techniques discussed in the classroom to practice actual forestry extension by visiting small farmers and/or colonists and trying to interest them in forestry projects.
2. To reinforce classroom and practical training in setting up a nursery by visiting several nurseries in the tropics, observing and learning applicable techniques.
3. To become acquainted first hand with the tropic species and the ecological environment in which they are present in the forests.
4. To observe the tropical forests from the standpoint of forest management taking into account ecological considerations.
5. To observe the rate and effects of deforestation by colonists and large timber concessions. To also become acquainted with their attitudes about forestry issues and how they have dealt with forestry problems.
6. To observe plantations of exotic species and become aware of the problems (now and in the future ) and the successes.
7. To observe and become aware of how the provincial forestry offices operate and their actual (operational) relationship to the head office.
8. To continue to develop communicative skills especially those related to forestry subjects by actually conversing in Spanish with a cross-section of the country's population.
9. Through conversations with government officials, small farmers and forestry company employees, to become acquainted first hand with the attitudes and barriers that impede forestry projects; and to become acquainted with possible solutions for dealing effectively with such attitudes and barriers .
10. To observe monocultures born the standpoint of the ecological and economic impact they might have on the community and country.
11. To investigate cooperatives as a means of introducing forestry projects.
12. To have an understanding of agricultural crops and their potential as related to agro-forestry projects.
The purpose of the field trip(s) is to give trainees the chance to practice extension: To approach techniques by actually talking with farmers. The field trip also reinforces classroom and practical training in setting up a nursery. Different species of trees are seen in their ecological environment. Forest management is observed from the standpoint of ecological considerations. First hand observation of the effects of deforestation by colonists and large timber concessions are shown to trainees. Trainees will also visit several plantations of exotic species and become aware of the problems and the successes of plantations. Participants will have the opportunity to converse with many government officials about forestry issues and research projects in which they are engaged. If possible, trainees will converse with cooperative members and observe cooperative ventures. Agricultural crops will he investigated and their potential for agro-forestry projects will be discussed by trainers.
We have listed schedules for one Sierra field trip and one tropical field trip. We encourage trainers to get as many confirmations as possible and have back-up sites in mind in case something falls through.
A session to review the day's activities should be held each evening during the field trip.
TROPICAL FIELD TRIP
Monday, November 30
1. Visit to Monterrey Pine plantation of Ingeniero Sotomayor. Discussions with him concerning silviculture and economics of stand. Discussions of future plans for incorporating a silvo pastoral system into his farm management. Observation of pasture management techniques and terracing. Observation of pathological and insect damage to forest stand.
2. Observation of changing vegetation types from high sierra to humid tropic. Discussion on man's impact; clearing and burning for establishing agricultural crops and pasture on steep slopes. Identification of some of the basic forest species (cecropia, spp, Cordia alliodora). Observations of an agro-forestry system (Cordia, Bananas, & Coffee).
3. Arrived Rancho Ronald
4. Volleyball games
Tuesday, December 1
1. Met Ingeniero Rosero at Provincial Ministry of Agriculture office in Santo Domingo. Accompanied him to Ministry of Agriculture nursery.
2. Charla by Ingeniero Rosero on;a. forestry history of area,
b. forestry program,
c. changing climatic conditions caused by deforestation,
d. obstacles in implementation of a successful forestry program.
3. Nursery seed bed discussion and demonstration (trainee participation).a. making seed beds
b. seed collection
c. seed treatment
e. problems & solutions- aphids - spraying
- control of soil micro-organisms - vapor
- weed control - spraying
- managing bud worm - no solution
f. preparing seedlings for outplanting - making seudo estacas.
g. methods of outplanting seudo-estacas.
h. discussion on possible use of containers for seedling production of tropical species.
4. Discussions on species produced in the nursery: (Cordia, Cedro, Pachaco, Cordia negro, Teca).a. guayacan
b. growth rates - fast growing exotics
c. economic possibilities
d. ecological requirements
5. Lunch with Ingeniero Rosero.
6. Visit to stand of Cordia Alliadora on a marginal site:a. poor stem growth
b. need of species for site with good soil conditions
c. spacing requirements-for species
d. efforts to improve stand by thinning and economic aspects for use of thinnings
7. Visit to commercial stand of Balsa:a. stand establishment: Direct seeding and early thinning
b. growth rates
c. economic aspects: markets, prices, etc.
d. problems - depletion of nutrients in soil - possible need for fertilizers
8. Return to Rancho Ronald - Dinner.
9. Review of day's (and previous day's) activities.
10. Charla tropical forest management.
11. Group discussion: Ecuador - Paraguay.
Wednesday, December 2
1. Charla (continuation) of forest management.
2. Purchasing food for lunch in field - buying fruit etc. at local market.
3. Met with local Ministry of Agriculture officials and PCV working in Quininde.
4. Visit to co-op nursery - Lack of care and weeding. Discussion on establishment of nursery: Ministry of Agriculture-Coop arrangement. No co-op member was present for discussion as had been planned. Observation of natural Balsa regeneration.
5. Observations of recent logging and conversion of land to coffee and agricultural crops. b. Observation and discussion of African Oil Palm monocultures over extensive areas. (500 ha). Nematodes, blight - epidemic potential.
7. Visit to Emdesa nursery.a. Seed bed preparation; fertilization.
b. Problem Mahogany bud worn in Cedro.
c. Observed species in nursery; Teca, Guayacan, Cordia, Cedro, Pachaco, Pinus patula, Pinus radiate, and Pinus caribea.
8. Lunch along river; bird watching.
9. Visit to (1200 ha) stand and observed forest management practices to establish regeneration in cut-over stand:a. elimination of annuals and undesirable forests species
b. inventory of regeneration - determination of stocking level
c. inter-planting with Cordia and Guayacon
d. elimination by weeding of annuals
e. monitoring results
10. Visit to tropical forest recently logged over: a. observation of tropical species and growing habitat b. buttressing c. discussions on tropical wildlife: birds, monkeys, lions, etc.
11. Rancho Ronald (Arrived 9:30 PM) Dinner and then retired for evening.
Thursday, December 3.
1. Purchase of food at local market for lunch in field.
2. Met Ministry of Agriculture officials at provincial office in Santo Domingo. (2 officials could not attend as planned) left to attend co-op meeting and practice forest extension:a. meeting did not materialize
b. discussion by Ministry of Agriculture officials on how (how not to) conduct extension- little contact or knowledge with people by Ministry of Agriculture,
- No follow-up of previous projects, - eliciting responses that agree with Ministry of Agriculture extensionist's goals,
- pasture better than forests.
3. Observations of cutover areas +3 km both sides of newly located road.
4. Clearing of cutover areas for agriculture crops: large scale commerical mechanized production possible.a. loss of nutrients through leaching
b. water and wind erosion
5. Visit to small sawmill. Observations on:a. poor utilization
b. type of machinery, lack of safety
c. economics: purchasing standing timber; selling saw boards.
d. production of non-dimensional stock.
6. Swimming - in river; interaction with local swimmers.
7. Return to Rancho Ronald.
8. Volleyball game.
9. Charla on watershed management.
10 .Review day's activities.
11. Group discussions: Ecuador, Paraguay.
Friday, December 4
1. Visit to Pichilingue agricultural experiment station and observations of:a. use of Teca as live fence posts
b. agro-forestry- coffee/guayamba
- cacao/rachaco - poor
- guayacan and teca plantations.
2. Visit to Quenedo; purchase of food at local market for lunch in country.
3. Lunch and swimming
4. Observation of changing vegetative types and changing climatic types (high fog) from tropical forests to paramo grass (high elevation - sierra).
5. Dinner and overnight at Latacunga.
Saturday, December 5
1. Visit to local market in morning.
2. Meeting with Ministry of Agriculture officials; observations of:a. species trials (no records available)
b. insect (defoiliator) and biological controls
c. mixed plantation (patula & radiate)- spacing
- effects of thinning and pruning
d. leader and top die-back
e. Cypress plantation - failure
3. Visit to Cotopaxi National Park.
Lecture on National Park and ecological reserves systemsa. Park management and programs,
b. problems: controlling exotics, hunting tourist flow,
c. environmental/educational problems.
4. Return to Quito.