|Boiling Point No. 22 - August 1990 (ITDG Boiling Point, 1990)|
The following extracts from papers by W Micuta, G Rossier and E Hass of "REDI" Renewable Energy Development Institute (5 rue du Vidollet, CH 1202, Geneve, Switzerland) report on trials of their institutional stoves in Port- au-Prince, Haiti in 1989.
Haiti, once heavily forested, is now severely de-forested and the authors report that unless urgent action is taken by the government, there will be no forests left by the end of the decade and erosion already severe will soon become disastrous (see UNDP/FAO Project Documents HAI/88/009). Most of the trees cut are converted into charcoal, 85% of which is burnt in Port-au- Prince. They estimate that 10 tons of wood produce only 1 ton of charcoal (see report by G Rossier and W Micuta). Charcoal is the main fuel for domestic and community cooking and a considerable volume is used by industry.
The REDI team rebuilt 4 kitchens in schools, installed 6 stoves and trained their users. Production problems with metal stoves were studied and stove tests were carried out with the following results:
· Traditional charcoal stove with 15 litre local pot - see Fig 1
· Efficiency up to boiling - 20%, specific consumption 50 g. charcoal/kg boiling water, mean power output -2 .25 Kw. Graph I
· REDI - multi-fu¢l and multi-pot stove with 15 litre local pot see Fig 2
· Efficiency up to boiling - 49.7%; specific consumption - 463 g. wood/kg water mean power output - 2.9 Kw Graph II
· -REDI - SO litre multi-fuel stove - see Fig 3
· Efficiency up to boiling - 45.5%; specific consumption 54.2 g. wood/kg water mean power output - 5.6 Kw. Graph III
Note - The tests were made with a coed stove start, thus measuring the heating up of the stove bodies. Drawings of the stoves are not shown but the 15 litre REDl stove has a single mild steel wall and has a chimney. The 50 litre stove has double steel walls separated by 10 cm of fine grave/ and has a chimney.
In conclusion, REDl's team is certain that it is quite possible to avoid the ecological disaster now threatening Haiti, providing that the foreign technical assistance is used efficiently for the local production, on a large scale, of fuel efficient sheet metal stoves of various kinds and of cooking gear, and for the introduction of fuels other than firewood. Technical assistance should be particularly applied in industrial activities for intensifying reforestation in various ways. This, of course, could not be done without the wholehearted participation, support and cooperation of the Haitian Government.