Cover Image
close this bookEnvironmental Limits to Motorisation (SKAT, 1993)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentPreface
View the documentAcknowledgements
Open this folder and view contents1. Synopsis
View the document2. Dreaming of cars and motorbikes
Open this folder and view contents3. Limits to the growth of motorisation
Open this folder and view contents4. The bicycle boom in developed countries
Open this folder and view contents5. Transport needs and NMT in the Third World
Open this folder and view contents6. Towards a strategy to promote NMT
Open this folder and view contents7. Towards model projects "Towns for cyclists" in the Third World
View the document8. Concluding remarks: a new paradigm for urban transport
View the document9. References
View the document10. Glossary

9. References

1. Wolfgang Sachs: "Die Liebe zum Automobil -ein Rückblick in die Geschichte unserer Wünsche", Hamburg, 1984.

2. The vote was held in March 1992; unfortunately, the participation in the referendum was low so that the result may not be binding for the citycouncil to implement the decision.

3. A. Faiz et al.: "Automotive air pollution -issues and options for developing countries", Working Papers, Infrastructure and urban development department, World Bank, August 1990.

4. Source: Marcia D. Lowe: "The bicycle: vehicle for a small planet", Worldwatch Paper 90, Washington September 1989, page 24.

5. World Bank: "Urban transport in Asia -an operation strategy for the 1990s", Asia Technical Department, Infrastructure Division, Washington, June 1991, page 39.

6. See Charles Kaira: "Transportation needs of the rural population in developing countries", Karlsruhe 1983 (Institut für Regionalwissenschaft).

7. See Ricardo Navarro, Urs Heierli, Victor Beck: "La bicicleta y los triciclos", St. Gallen, 1985, page 9.

8. See Michael Renner: "Rethinking the role of the automobile", Worldwatch Paper 84, Washington, 1988, page 18.

9. Michael Replogle: "Non-motorised vehicles in Asian cities", World Bank, Washington, 1992, page 28.

10 Marcia D. Lowe: " The bicycle: vehicle for a small planet", Worldwatch Paper 90, Washington September 1989, page 18.

11. See Peter Midgley: "Urban transport in Asia: an agenda for the 1990s", World Bank, Asia Technical Department, Infrastructure Division, Washington, September 1991.

12. World Bank: "Urban transport in Asia -an operation strategy for the 1990s", Asia Technical Department, Infrastructure Division, Washington, June 1991, page 14.

13. op. cit., page l5.

14. Peter Midgley: op. cit., page 6.

15. GTZ, German Technical Cooperation: "Verkehrsstudie Bangkok-Schlussbericht", Eschborn bei Frankfurt, September 1975.

16. J.E. Dunford et al.: "Bangkok traffic management project -problems of scheme design and implementation", PTRC, July 1980, p. 191.

17. Calculations made by the author based on data of the feasibility study for a metro in Bogota. See Ricardo A. Navarro, Urs Heierli, Victor Beck: "La bicicleta y los triciclos", St. Gallen (Switzerland) and Santiago (Chile) , 1985, page 48 ff.

18. Source: "Transport profile", Government of Karnataka, Bangalore, 1991, and additional information up to March 1992.

19. "Urban Transport in Asia", World Bank, op. cit., page 12.

20. See J.P. Chandra: "Delhi is doomed without a metro", Delhi 1992.

21. See Transnet: "Energy, transport and the environment", Transnet, 16 Warren Lane, London SE 18 6 DW, 1990.

22. A. Faiz et al: op. cit. , page 17.

23. "World development report 1992 -development and the environment", The World Bank, Oxford University Press, 1992, page 50.

24. "World development report 1992", op. cit., page 52.

25. "World development report 1992", op. cit., page 52.

26. See World development report 1992, op. cit., page 124.

27. J. MacKenzie, M.P. Walsh: "Driving forces: motor vehicle trends and their implications for global warming, energy strategies and transportation planning",
World Resources Institute, Washington, 1990, page 3.

28. See Greenpeace: "The environmental impact of the car", Amsterdam, 1991, page 43 ff.

29. op. cit.: page 19.

30. op. cit: page 29.

31. See Michael Renner: "Rethinking the role of the automobile", Worldwatch Paper 84, Washington, June 1988, page 13 ff.

32. The excellent report by Faiz et al: "Automotive air pollution", says a lot about motor-car pollution, but only a few lines about two-stroke engines.

33. World Commission on environment and development: "Our common future", Oxford , 1987, page 176.

34. World Resources Institute: "Greenhouse warming: negotiating a global regime", Washington, 1991.

35. See Anil Agarwal/Sunita Narain: "Global Warming in an unequal world -a case of environmental colonialism", Centre for Science and Environment (CSE), New Delhi, January 1991.

36. Anil Agarwal/Sunita Narain: "Towards a green World -should global environmental management be built on legal conventions or Human Rights?", Centre for Science and Environment, New Delhi, 1992, page 41.

37. See for example TERI: "Getting off this 'fuelish' path", Tata Energy Research Insitute, New Delhi, 1992, and other publications by the same institute.

38. "Bikes not fumes -the emission and health benefits of a modal shift from motor vehicles to cycling", Cyclists' Touring Club, 69 Meadrow, Godalming, Surrey GU7 3HS, 1991.

39. See Erna Krommendijk: "Bicycle and environment in the city: a quantification of some environmental effects of a bicycle-oriented traffic policy in Groningen", Groningen, Prof. H.C. van Hall Instituut, Postbus 17, 9700 Groningen , 1988.

40. W.G.M. Huyink: "Cycling policy in the city of Groningen", in: CROW: "Proceedings Velocity 87", CROW, P.O. Box 37, 6710 BA Ede, Netherlands. , 1988, page 225.

41. Christopher Flaving: "The heat is on -the greenhouse effect", in Lester R. Brown et al.: "The Worldwatch reader on global environmental issues", Washington , 1991, page 85.

42. Michael Replogle: "Sustainability: a vital Concept for transportation planning and development", Journal of Advanced Transportation, Vol. . 25, No. 1, pp 3-18, Spring 1991.

43. See Michael Replogle: op.cit., page 7.

44. Source: Marcia D. Lowe, "The bicycle, vehicle for a small planet", op. cit., page 32.

45. Source: Marcia D. Lowe: "The bicycle: vehicle for a small planet", op. cit., p. 12.

46. See Socialdata: "Informationen zum Stadtverkehr -Kennziffern der Mobilität, Stadt Luenen", München , 1991.

47. See D.A.C. Maunders: "Trip rates and travel patterns in Delhi", TRRL Research Report 1, Crowthorne , 1984; P.R. Fouracre/D.A.C. Maunders: "Travel demand characteristics in three medium sized Indian cities". TRRL Research Report 121, Crowthorne , 1987.

48. Michael Replogle: "Non-motorized vehicles in Asian cities", op. cit, p. xiv.

49. See W.J. Simons: "Social status and position of the bicycle in the Netherlands", in CROW: "Proceedings Velo-City 87, Groningen, 1987.

50. See Robert Gallagher: "The rickshaws of Bangladesh", Dhaka , 1992.

51. See International Conference on traffic safety: "The vulnerable road users", edited by Dinesh Mohan, New Delhi , 1991. (taken from: Journal of Traffic Medicine, vol. 18, Number 4, 1990).

52. See Mayer Hillman et al.: "One false move... a Study of children's independent mobility", Policy Studies Institute, London, 1990.

53. See Tilman Bracher: "Konzepte für den Radverkehr -Fahrradpolitische Erfahrungen und Strategien", Bielefeld , 1987, page 48 ff.

54. See British Medical Association: " Cycling -towards health and safety", Oxford , 1992 and The public health Alliance: "Health on the move -Policies for health promoting transport", Birmingham , 1991.

55. Robert Gallagher: "The rickshaws of Bangladesh", page 187ff.

56. The most common distance for rickshaw trips is about 2.5 kms, for baby-taxis and motorised rickshaws about 4 kms, and for buses, about 6 kms.

57. See: "Schlussbericht Velo-Kampagne 1990", Stadtplanungsamt, Postfach, CH-8023 Zürich, February 1991.

58. Taken from Tilman Bracher: "Konzepte für den Radverkehr", based on studies of TRRL, Crowthorne, op. cit., page 45.

59. See Michael Replogle: "Non-motorized vehicles in Asian cities", op. cit, page 20.

60. See Marcia D. Lowe: "The Bicycle: vehicle for a small planet", op. cit., p. 21.

61. See Charles Kaira: "Transportation needs of the rural population in developing countries, op. cit., page 71.

62. Source: P.R. Fouracre/ D.A.C. Maunder: "Travel demand characteristics in three medium sized Indian cities", TRRL, Crowthorne , 1987, p. 9.

63. See Angus Deaton et al.: "The demand for personal travel in developing countries", The World Bank, discussion Paper, August 1987.

64. See D.A.C. Maunder: "Trip rates and travel patterns in Delhi, India", TRRL, Crowthorne , 1984.

65. Michael Replogle: "NMT in Asian cities", op. cit., page 37.

66. Communication of the marketing division of the Swiss Railways, SBB, to the author.

67. Michael Replogle: op.cit., page 38.

68. This chapter is based on information provided by Markus Eisenring, engineering consultant, Bienenstrasse 21, CH-9244 Niederuzwil, Switzerland. Mr. Eisenring has developed the prototype electric car "Stromboli".

69. According to the "Science and Technology Supplement" of the "Deccan Herald", Bangalore, October 26, 1992.

70. Source: statistics from the Regional Traffic Office (RTO), Bangalore, for March 1992.

71. See Anil Ananthakrishna: "Electric two-and three-wheelers for personal and public transport", Electric Vehicle Association of Canada, 275 Slater St., Suite 500, Ottawa Ont. K1P 5H9, 1988.

72. See Anil Ananthakrishna: "A commercially viable electric car", SAE Technical Papers, SAE, 400 Commonwealth Drive, Warrendale, PA 15096-001, USA.

73. See Jean-Michel Houmard: "Etude et Réalisation d'une électronique pour une rischka", Travail de diplôme, ETS, Biel/Switzerland, 1988.

74. These are rough estimates made by the author with Markus Eisenring's assistance.

75. Giga stands for million kWh: 90'000'000 kWh.

76. See Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg, Institut für Lehrerfortbildung: "Projekt Mofafahren -Steigt um auf das Solar Mofa", Hamburg, 1992. This information was given to the author by Anil Ananthakrishna.

77. Werner Broeg/Eberhard Erl: "Verhaltensbeeinflussung nach dem Public Awareness-Konzept", Socialdata, München , 1991.

78. Mostly the papers by Replogle and Midgley.

79. Rodney Tolley: "A hard road: the problems of walking and cycling in British cities", in R. Tolley (ed.) "The greening of urban transport", op. cit., page 22.

80. Tilman Bracher: "Policy and provision for cyclists in Europe" -Radverkehrspolitik und Radverkehrsanlagen in Europa", IVU, Bundesallee 129, 1000 Berlin 41, 1988.

81. An English language brochure about the Dutch Master plan bicycle is available from: Ministry of Transport, P.O. Box 20906, 2500 EX Den Haag. The Master plan is also supported by a superb ten-minute video film.

82. See A. de Rooij: "The role of the bicycle in an integrated approach towards Mobility", in: CROW: Proceedings of Velo-City 87, op. cit., page 41 ff.

83. See Tim Pharoah and John Russell: "Traffic calming: Policy and evaluations in three European countries", Faculty of the built environment, Wandsworth Road, London SW8 2 JZ, page 14.

84. See Dieter Walprecht (Hrsg.): "Verkehrsberuhigung in Gemeinden" Band 1 und 2, Carl Heymanns Verlag, Köln , 1987.

85. See John Whitelegg: "Environmental traffic management", in: Rodney Tolley (ed.): " The greening of urban transport", op. cit., p. 75 ff.

86. See Verkehrs Club der Schweiz (VCS): "Lust auf Tempo 30", Postfach, CH-3360 Herzogenbuchsee, 1989.

87. OECD: "Environmental policies for cities in the 1990s", Paris , 1990, page 72.

88. See Kurt Infanger: "Velofahren der Umwelt zuliebe", in: "Auswertung - Internationales Planungsseminar für Fahrradverkehr, 4.-6. Sept. 1986", Bern , 1986.

89. See TECNOSER: "Proposition de recherche pour une ville sans voiture", Rome, December, 1991 (the report will be published by the CEE later on).

90. See Municipality of Delft: "The Delft cycle plan -planning for the urban cyclist", 2 volumes, Delft, 1984; there is also a very comprehensive video-film available from the Municipality.

91. See Jan Hartman: "The Delft bicycle network", in: Rodney Tolley (ed.): "The greening of urban transport", op. cit., p. 192 ff.

92. Dirk H. ten Grotenhuis: "The Delft cycle plan -characteristics of the concept", in: CROW: "Proceedings Velo-City 87", op. cit., p. 111 ff.

93. See Ministry of Transport and Public Works: "Evaluation of the Delft bicycle network plan, Final Summary Report", The Hague , 1987.

94. M.J.P.F. Gommers: "The bicycle network of Delft, Influence on trip-level, network use and route choice of cyclists", in: CROW: "Proceedings Velocity 87", op. cit., p. 119 ff.

95. See D. Habermeier: "Deutschland: das gelungene Experiment Erlangen", in: "Das Fahrrad -Verkehrsmittel der Zukunft", Int. Fahrradsymposium St. Poelten, Austria, 1989.

96. The interview was made by Victor Beck and is published in Ricardo A. Navarro, Urs Heierli, Victor Beck: " La bicicleta", op. cit., p 306 ff.

97. See Oskar Balsiger: "Velo am Wendepunkt" in: "Das Fahrrad-Verkehrsmittel der Zukunft", Int. Planungsseminar St. Poelten, 1989.

98. See: Office des ponts et chaussées du Canton de Berne: "Conception pour l'inté- gration des deux roues légers" and "Aménagements l' usage des deux roues - recommandations", Reiterstrasse 11, CH-3011 Berne; also available in German: "Wegweiser für Integrierten Veloverkehr", and "Zweiradanlagen -Empfehlungen für Massnahmen, Baudirektion des Kantons Bern.

99. W. Huelsmann (Umweltbundesamt Berlin): "The first international presentation of the final results of the German model project 'towns for cyclists', in: CROW: "Proceedings Velocity 87", op. cit., p 91.

100. See Umweltbundesamt: "Abschliessender Bericht zum Modellvorhaben Fahrradfreundliche Stadt", three volumes (A,B and C), Berlin , 1987.

101. Umweltbundesamt: "Wegweiser zur Fahrradfreundlichen Stadt", Results of the model-activity "bicycle-friendly cities", Berlin , 1987.

102. Socialdata: "Verhaltensbeeinflussung nach dem Public Awareness Konzept", München , 1991.

103. Socialdata: op. cit.

104. Socialdata: op. cit.

105. See: "Berliner Luft überschreitet Abgasgrenzwerte", in: "Der Spiegel", Nr. 17, 20. April 1992, page 75ff .

106. See: different articles in: "Proceedings Velo City '89, International bicycle conference, 1989, edited by Niels Jensen, Danish Cyclist Federation, Copenhagen , 1989.

107. See John Roberts: "The economic case for green modes" in: Rodney Tolley (ed.): "The greening of urban transport", op. cit., page 34 ff.

108. See John Roberts, op. cit., page 44.

109. See Rolf Monheim: "The evolution and impact of pedestrian areas in the Federal Republic of West Germany", in Rodney Tolley (ed.): "The greening of urban transport", op. cit., page 245 ff.
110. See Gregers Lyster, Gallup Market Research Denmark: "Why do they not use the bicycle", in: "Velo City 89 -Proceedings", op. cit., page 78 ff.

111. The example of the tram company in Zurich is extensively described in H. and R. Monheim: "Strassen für Alle -Analysen und Konzepte zum Stadtverkehr der Zukunft", Hamburg , 1990, page 393.

112. See Stadtplanungsamt: "Schlussbericht Velo-Kampagne 1990 -Züri faart Velo", Postfach, CH-8023 Zürich, 1991.

113. See Schmidt, T. and Midden, C.: "Changing modal split by a behavioural sciences approach", in: CROW: "Proceedings Velo-City 87", op. cit., page 69 ff.

114. Schmidt et al.: op. cit, page 72.

115. See J. Tschopp: "Bike and ride and the introduction of the green reduction card in Basel, a success story in stimulating use of public transport and the bicycle", in: CROW: "Proceedings Velo City 87", op. cit., p. 55 ff.

116. See Metron AG: "Mit dem Velo zur S-Bahn", 2 volumes, Brugg , 1985.

117. See Stadtplanungsamt Zürich: Veloabstellplätze an Bahnhöfen und Stationen in der Stadt Zürich, Zürich, 1991.

118. See ADFC: "Fahrradstationen an Bahnhöfen; Modelle -Chancen -Risiken", ADFC, Birkenstrasse 48, D-4000-Düsseldorf 1.

119. See H. Tsuda: "Present bicycle usage and policy in Japan", in: CROW: "Proceedings Velo-City 87", op. cit., page 51.

120. See Michael Replogle: "Bicycles and public transportation -new links to suburban transit markets", The Bicycle Federation, Washington D.C. , 1984, page 51 ff.

121. World Bank: "Urban transport in Asia -an operational strategy for the city", op. cit., page 24.

122. Johannes F. Linn: "Cities in the developing world -policies for their equitable and efficient growth", a World Bank Research Publication, Oxford University Press, 1983, page 98.

123. See A. de Rooj: "The role of the bicycle in an integrated approach towards mobility", in: CROW: "Proceedings Velo City 87", op. cit., page 41 ff.

124. "Urban transport in Asia", World Bank, Asia Technical department, op. cit. page 70.

125. op. cit, page 72.

126. See V. Setty Pendakur: "Non-motorized urban transport in India", Transportation Research Board annual meeting, 1988.

127. See A.G. Hathway: "Travel requirements for the urban poor", presented at Transportation Research Board annual meeting, Washington, D.C. January 1990.

128. See Rachel E. Kranton: "Transport and the mobility needs of the poor -an exploratory study", Discussion Paper, World Bank, November 1991, page 16 .

129. See Michael Replogle: "Bicycles and cycle rickshaws in Asian cities: Issues and strategies", Transportation Research Board annual meeting, January 1992, p.11.

130. Peter J. Rimmer: "Rikisha to rapid transit -urban public transport policies and systems in South East Asia", Pergamon Press, Sydney, Oxford , 1986, page 256.

131. See P.R Fouracre, R.J Allport and J.M Thomson: "The performance and impact of rail mass transit in developing countries", TRRL Research Report 278, Crowthorne, 1990.

132 See P.R. Fouracre: "Policy options in Third World public transport", Journal of Transport Management", 10 (8), page 19-25.

133. See G. Gardner: "The performance of busway transit in developing cities", TRRL Research Report 329, Crowthorne , 1991.

134. "Pedalling away -India's cycle manufacturers have never had it better", Business India, Sunday March 31, 1991, page 59.

135. D.A.C. Maunder and P.R. Fouracre: "Non-motorized travel in Third World cities", Institute of British Geographers, Reprint, TRRL, Crowthorne , 1989, page 14.

136. Dinesh Mohan: "Vulnerable road users -an era of neglect", Journal of Traffic Medicine, in print.

137. Source of information: visit of the author to Pepsi Cola and to Ponque Ramos. For the case of Ponque Ramos see Ricardo A. Navarro, Urs Heierli, Victor Beck: "La Bicicleta", op. cit., page 145 ff.

138. This chapter is based on the extensive study made by Robert Gallagher: "The rickshaws of Bangladesh", University Press Limited, Dhaka , 1992, and its summary-version (to be published). This study was financed by the Swiss Development Cooperation (SDC) and the Norwegian Aid Agency (NORAD).

139. See Eirik Jansen et al.: "The country boats of Bangladesh", University Press Limited, Dhaka , 1990.

140. See: "Transport in China -a comparison of basic indicators with those of other countries", World Bank Staff Working Papers, Nr. 723, Washington , 1985, page 35 ff.

141. See Chen Zhenjao: "The way out for bicycle traffic in China's Cities", Jiangxi Urban Planning Institute, Nanchang, China 330006, page 2 ff.

142. See Chen Zhenyao: "Comparative study on personal travel behaviour between China and Great Britain", Jiangxi Urban Planning Institute, Nanchang, China 330006, page 21.

143. See William Thornhill: "Non-motorized transport in China", transportation research Board annual meeting , Washington, D.C. , 1991; quoted in: Michael Replogle: "Non-motorized transport in Asian cities", op. cit., page 20.

144. See C.K. Leung et al.: "Urban transport and planning in Guangzhou, China" Transport research Board annual meeting, Washington, 1992.

145. See W.H.K. Lam & H.J. Huang: "Urban transportation planning and traffic management in China", Transportation research Board annual meeting, Washington, 1992.

146. T. Shimazaki, Yang Dongyuan: "Bicycle usage in urban China", Transportation research Board annual meeting, Washington, 1992.

147. See also Huichun Zhao: "Bicycles in Tinjian city: a case study", Global mobility, Center for advanced research in transportation, Arizona State University, Tempe Arizona 85287-6306 USA, 1987.

148. See Staff Appraisal Report: "China -Shanghai Metropolitan transport project", World Bank, August 1991.

149. See M.A. Powills, Chen Sheng-Hong: "Bicycles in Shanghai: a major transportation Issue", January 1989 (with pictures).

150. See UNDP: "National transportation sector Review", Working Paper No 14 on "Urban transport", Hanoi, October 1991.

151. Private communication by L. Egan: "Observations on the Vietnamese micro-economy 1991-92", IDE, International Development Enterprises, Hanoi, 1992.

152. See Hanoi People's Committee, transportation & urban public works Service: "Project for public transportation in Hanoi", December, 1991.

153. It is to be hoped that the World Bank can soon operate in Vietnam (when the US embargo is lifted) and go into a sound conceptual analysis, on the basis of the existing survey: "Vietnam -stabilization and structural reforms - an economic report", annex D. Transport, World Bank, 1990.

154. See Claus Heidemann & Ursula Barth: "Rural transport in developing countries - a synopsis of findings and a framework for studies", Institut für Regionalwissenschaft der Universität Karlsruhe, 1987.

155. John D. N. Riverson and Steve Carapetis: "Intermediate means of transport in Sub-Saharan Africa -its potential for improving rural travel and transport", World Bank, 1991 (foreword by Ismail Serageldin).

156. I. Barwell, et al.: "Rural transport in developing countries", London , 1985, page 135.

157. See Romeo B. Ocampo: "Low-cost transport in Asia -a comparative report on five cities", IDRC, Ottawa , 1982 (most vehicles do also ply in rural areas) .

158. See ILO: "The design and manufacture of low-cost motorised vehicles", London , 1988.

159. John N. D. Riverson and Steve Carapetis: "Intermediate means of transport in sub-Saharan Africa", op. cit, page 18.

160. Barbara Gruehl Kipke: "Transportation problems in Third World cities and a case study in West Africa", in CROW: "Proceedings Velo-City 87", op. cit., p. 153.

161. Christina Malmberg-Calvo: "Case studies on Intermediate means of transport and the role of women in Rural transport", IT Transport/ILO, January 1992, page 50.
162. About the technology see: Ricardo A. Navarro et al.: "La bicicleta y los triciclos", op. cit., page 225 ff.

163. See Hans-Juergen Wiemer, Peter Huber: "Production of bicycles and bicycle parts (Bangladesh)", African Asian Bureau, Schildergasse 93, D-5000 Köln 1, page 39.

164. See Peter van Balen, Hein Tourney, Ruud Vermeulen: "Organisation of bicycle manufacturing; a model of phased development", AT Source Magazine, volume 19, Number 3, September 1991.

165. See John W. Wall: "External economics and localization in small-scale industry: a case study of the bicycle manufacturing industry in Ludhiana, India", Duke University, University Microfilms, Ann Arbor (Mich.), 1973.

166. See J.K. Nyasulu, S.K. Chisale: "The bicycle price study", Department of economic planning, transport planning unit, Malawi, August 1991.

167. The case is well documented in Peter van Balen et al.: op. cit, p 18.

168. See Ricardo A. Navarro: "Bicycle production in Nicaragua -a field experience", SKAT, St. Gallen , 1986.

169. See Peter van Balen et al.: op. cit., page 20 (Peter van Balen was the technical consultant for the project).

170. See: Jaime J. Kolpa: "Las posibilidades de la bicicleta en Nicaragua", Universidad de Amsterdam, Holanda, 1987.

171. See UNCTAD/GATT: "Bicycles and components: A pilot survey of opportunities for trade among developing countries", Geneva , 1985.

172. See Robert Gallagher: "The rickshaws of Bangladesh", op. cit., page 359 ff.

173. See I. Barwell et al.: "Rural transport in developing countries", op. cit, page 30 ff.

174. See Robert Gallagher: "The rickshaws of Bangladesh", op. cit., page 613 ff.

175. See Robert Gallagher: op. cit., page 613 ff.

176. See Ricardo A. Navarro et al: "La bicicleta y los triciclos", op. cit., pa 157 ff.

177. See Ricardo A. Navarro: "Feasibility study for the production of bicycles and promotion of their use in El Salvador", CESTA, Apdo 3065, San Salvador, July 1988.

178. See: "Employers start push for more pedal power", The Independent, London, Sunday 23rd February 1992.

179. See Marcia D. Lowe: "Ghana takes the low-cost road", Worldwatch, May June 1989, page 8.

180. Thampil Pankaj: "Designing low-cost rural transport components to reach the poor", World Bank, Infrastructure Notes, March, 1991.

181. Private communication by Thampil Pankaj to me in March 1992.

182. Roberto Chavez: "Non-motorised transportation in Cuba", ITDP, Institute for Transportation and Development, Washington D.C. 20009, February 1992.
183. See for example: Heinrich Richard et al.: "Handbuch für Radverkehrsanlagen", with a foreword of the German Minister of Transport, Darmstadt, 1986.

184. See Ricardo A. Navarro et al.: "La bicicleta y los triciclos", op. cit., page 273 ff.

185. See Municipalidad de Estacion Central: "Proyecto ciclo-vias 1991", Santiago de Chile, 1991.

186. See Ricardo Neves: "Urban transport & quality of life", Institute of technology for the citizen, Hermenegildo Barros 35 -C.02, 20241 Rio de Janeiro, 1992.

187. The secretariat is in Germany: c/o ADFC, Postfach 10 77 47, D-2800 Bremen 1.

188. See Umweltbundesamt: "Merkmale einer fahrradfreundlichen Stadt", Modellvorhaben Fahrradfreundliche Stadt -Information Nr. 21, Berlin, Januar 1984.

189. See Umweltbundesamt: "Wegweiser zur fahrradfreundlichen Stadt", Berlin, Oktober 1987, page 13.

190. See Stephan Schmidheiny: "Changing course -global perspective on development and the environment", MIT, Massachusetts , 1992.

191. See the report on the Velo-City conference in Montreal "Le vélo civilise la ville", in: "Journal ATE", Association transports et environnement, Delémont (Switzerland), November 1992, page 10.

192. See Umweltbundesamt: Abschliessender Bericht zum Modellvorhaben Fahrradfreundliche Stadt Teil A: Begleituntersuchung und übergreifende Aspekte, Berlin, 1987.

193. W. Broeg, E. Erl, H. Katteler: "Existing and potential bicycle use -key factors" in: CROW: "Proceedings Velo-City 87", Groningen , 1987, p. 9 ff.

194. See W. Huelsmann (Umweltbundesamt): "The first international presentation of the final results of the German Model project 'towns for cyclists', in CROW: "Proceedings Velo-City 87", Groningen , 1987, page 87 ff.