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close this bookIndustry and Energy - Initial Environmental Assessment Series No. 9 (NORAD, 1994)
close this folderPart I: General account
close this folder3 Possible environ mental impacts
View the document(introduction...)
View the document3.1 Impacts of extraction of natural resources
View the document3.2 Impacts of processing


This survey considers both direct and indirect environmental impacts. It can often be difficult to distinguish clearly between these two types of impacts. The causes of direct impacts can be linked directly to the industry or energy project. Indirect impacts can result from other types of activities associated with the project, for instance transport. Indirect impacts can also ensue when the project in some way affects socio-cultural and other social conditions in the project area, for instance through relocation of people.

The project can have environmental impacts both in the construction phase, the operations phase and after the activity has been stopped. Relevant examples are the impacts of excavation and blasting activity, production discharges and abandoned waste materials and pollutants in the ground.

The description below highlights the impacts on the environment and the people in the vicinity. In addition the environmental impacts related to the working conditions are also included. Impacts for health, climate, vegetation and fauna have not been given separate sections, but will be discussed in relation to other sections. As an example of this, the health impacts of noise will be discussed in the section on noise.

This survey also presents recommendations for mitigative measures that can reduce possible negative environmental impacts.