|Planning National Parks for Ecodevelopment - Methods and Cases from Latin America (Peace Corps, 1982)|
|Chapter V. A practical method for park planning|
Step 1: Gather Basic Information and Background
a) Relate general statements of objectives for the park.
b) Gather descriptive information on the park area.
c) Gather topographic information and prepare the BASE MAP of the park.
d) Analyze the use of the park area.
e) Explain the factors which require urgent attention in the park.
f) Analyze the costs of construction in the area.
g) Review budget status of the department and the prospects for the park.
h) Review the personnel status of the department and prospects for the park.
i) Analyze the administrative, organizational, legal and political context for the new park.
Step 2: Inventory the Area in the Field
a) Survey the natural and cultural resources of the area.
b) Survey the land use and development aspects of the area.
c) Note the features of the national and regional development plans on the existing landscape.
d) Map and note those sites which warrant classification as CRITICAL AREAS.
Step 3: Analyze the Limitations and Constraints
a) List the FACTS art ASSUMPTIONS which are thought to act as limitations and constraints upon the planning of the area.
b) Prepare guidelines on the implications of each FACT and ASSUMPTION upon the planning of the park.
Step 4: State the Objectives of the Park
a) Formulate specific OBJECTIVES for the park.
b) (As far as possible, word the objectives such that they can guide management decisions, and subsequently. management decisions can be evaluated.
Step 5: Divide the Area into MANAGEMENT ZONES
a) (with the help of the resource maps and the field notes from Steps 1 - 4) identify areas where the natural and cultural resources relate to the individual park objectives.
b) Sketch each of these ten particular areas, sites or points onto a clean copy of the base map, to be called the PRELIMINARY ZONE MAP.
c) (From among the ten areas, sites or points) identify five preliminary zones.
d) Check the preliminary zone which contains the representative sample(s), ecotones and key genetic resources. in relation to the tactical guidelines.
e) Check the preliminary zone which contains the cultural resources in relation to the tactical guidelines.
f) Check the preliminary zone which contains the areas and points of interest for education, interpretation, research and monitoring.
g) Check the preliminary zone which contains the outstanding scenery and the resources related to recreation and tourism.
h) Examine the areas and points of the park which are of direct relevance to rural development.
i) Analyze the areas required for the administration of the park or which are to be utilized in ways inconsistent with park objectives.
j) Analyze the areas required for the reclamation of lands.
k) Draft the ZONE SPECIFICATIONS.
l) Identify the DEVELOPMENT AREAS and draft the DEVELOPMENT AREA SPECIFICATIONS.
m) Identify the SITES where specific activities and developments are to take place.
n) Cross-check the zoning proposal to insure adequate consistency.
o) Correct all inconsistencies in the zoning proposal.
Step 6: Draft Preliminary BOUNDARIES for the Park
a) Extend the line around the exterior of the cluster of
b) Check that the boundary circumscribes a relatively self-contained unit.
c) Check the boundary for its shape.
d) Check the boundary for the gradient from park to adjacent lands.
e) Check to note whether the boundary line is practical.
f) Make the necessary changes in the boundary on the PRELIMINARY ZONE MAP.
Step 7: Design the MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS
a) Design the ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PROGRAM.
Prepare a MANAGEMENT CONCEPT for the protection of the park and park visitors.
Prepare a management concept for resource management.
Prepare a management concept for the recreational use of the park.
Prepare a management concept for the touristic use of the park.
b) Design the INTERPRETATION AND RESEARCH PROGRAM.
Prepare a management concept for the interpretation of the park's resources.
Prepare a management concept for the educational use of the park.
Prepare a management concept for research.
Prepare a management concept for cooperative scientific and monitoring activities.
c) Design the ADMINISTRATION AND MAINTENANCE PROGRAM.
Prepare a management concept for the administration of the park.
Prepare a management concept for the maintenance of the park.
Prepare a management concept for the public relations and extension of the park.
Step 8: Prepare the INTEGRATED DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM
a) Prepare the development concept for each DEVELOPMENT AREA.
What is to be built?
What supplies, equipment and furnishings are necessary?
What infrastructure and utilities are required?
Prepare a table for each development area in which the development
concept is presented.
Integrate each development area.
b) Prepare the development concept for STAFF DEVELOPMENT.
How will the employees be obtained?
How will the employees be trained for the tasks shown in the management programs?
c) Prepare the development concept for INSTITUTIONAL FACTORS.
Are the policies and laws adequate and sufficient for the new park?
Are the general regulations applicable to the new park?
Are the administrative procedures appropriate for the new park?
Is there a need to develop new interdepartmental or international agreements?
Are the laws and policies appropriate and sufficient for the new park?
d) Prepare the GENERAL DEVELOPMENT MAP.
e) Cross-check the development concepts for inconsistencies.
Step 9: Analyze and Evaluate the Proposal
a) List and present the outputs and the inputs in terms relative to the national development plan, national development policies and the programs of the national park department.
b) Compare the outputs to the objectives.
c) Compare the inputs to the constraints.
d) Compare the outputs and the inputs.
e) Accept or reject the alternative proposal.
Step 10: Design the DEVELOPMENT SCHEDULE
a) Analyze the factors influencing the DEVELOPMENT SCHEDULE.
b) Prepare the DEVELOPMENT SCHEDULE MAP.
c) Prepare the MANAGEMENT AND DEVELOPMENT SCHEDULE TABLE.
d) Prepare a SCHEDULE NARRATIVE.
Step 11: Publish and Distribute the Management Plan
a) Publish the management plan.
b) Make a list of the individuals and institutions which warrant a copy.
c) Design the means for insuring the distribution of the copies of the documents to those on the list.
Step 12: Implement the Plan
a) The management plan must be approved and signed by the appropriate minister or by the director of the national park department.
b) The responsibility for implementation is delegated to the park manager, giving him the necessary authority and means to carry it out.
c) The park manager is provided with a letter of instructions and clear terms of reference.
d) The park MANAGER must receive the necessary support.
e) The management plan is the reference document for park implementation.
f) The park manager's copy of the management plan is to be mounted in a loose-leaf binder, with printing on one side of the page, and kept available for consultation by senior staff members.
Step 13: Analyze and Evaluate the Plan
a) The park manager should review the progress and problems of the work systematically and deduce what can be learned from each experience.
b) The implications of the progress and problems upon overall park planning must be assessed.
c) Specific guidelines and recommendations are made concerning (i) corrective measures to be made in the plan of work; (ii) amendments to be made in the management plan and (iii) principles and fundamentals to be shared with the entire park department and other park planning and management efforts.
Step 14: Feedback and Revise the Plan
a) The annual work plan is corrected as necessary and without delay within the confines of the management plan.
b) The management plan can be revised as necessary, but with the participation of central office personnel and the department director.
c) Those guidelines and recommendations which are deemed to be useful to all personnel can be formally incorporated into the training effort of the department.