|Planning National Parks for Ecodevelopment - Methods and Cases from Latin America (Peace Corps, 1982)|
|Chapter V. A practical method for park planning|
Strategy #1: Select at least one area in each of the major biotic units as functioning ecosystems in perpetuity.
Tactic #1: The area must include a representative sample of a biological province.
Tactic $2: The area must comprise one or more ecosystems capable of sustained survival and auto-regulation.
Tactic #3: The area must be managed in such manner as to guarantee that it remains perpetually in a natural state.
Strategy #2: Each representative sample of a major biological province must include the maximum possible variety and diversity found around the edges of that province and the typical or unique internal features of the area.
Tactic #4: The conservation area must include samples of the major ecotones between each biological province, biome or life zone.
Tactic #5: Management must avoid activities and developments in and along ecotones.
Tactic #6: The conservation area must include a variety of the features, sites and phenomena required for self-regulation of the area.
Tactic #7: Management must avoid activities and developments which interfere with features and phenomena upon which self-regulating mechanisms depend.
Strategy #3: Maintain areas to function as reservoirs for the genetic wealth of the nation in dynamic evolution.
Tactic #8: Sites of endemism must be included with the conservation areas.
Tactic #9: Management should avoid activities and developments which may affect sites of endemism or critical habitat requirements of rare or unique species.
Tactic #10: Conservation areas must be located to include the range of individual species.
Strategy #4: Protect, stabilize and restore objects, structures and sites of significance to the nation's cultural heritage, and provide for their study and appreciation by science and the public.
Tactic #11: Where cultural objects, structures or sites lie within natural areas, they are to be afforded appropriate protection and stabilization.
Tactic #12: Furthermore, where cultural resources lie near to natural areas, they may be incorporated to provide adequate protection and appropriate natural settings.
Tactic #13: Cultural resources are incorporated into the management of the wildland area to provide an aesthetic and consistent setting required for study and public visitation.
Strategy #5: Identify and place under management those sites, features or areas which are significant for their scenic beauty.
Tactic #14: A national park includes sites, features or areas which possess scenic qualities in addition to characteristics of significance to science.
Tactic #15: Where superlative scenic sites and features lie near to conservation area, they may be incorporated to provide them adequate protection.
Strategy #6: Each conservation area will support efforts to understand the natural and cultural resources, the transfer of knowledge to other rural development and environmental conservation activities, and the education and training of teachers, scientists, and the general public.
Tactic #16: Research activities designed to study and understand the natural and cultural resources of the area will be supported by access, facilities and services.
Tactic #17: Special sectors or zones of the conservation area should be designated to provide exclusive long-term use for scientific inquiry.
Tactic #18: Research and monitoring activities will be designed to support the management of the park, the overall development of rural lands, the training and education of scientists, students, planners, engineers and the general public, end in the preparation of educational materials.
Tactic #19: Particular facilities, activities and corresponding areas will be designed and managed for the reception, guidance, education and training of organized groups and the general public on the resources of the park.
Strategy #7: Provide opportunities for residents and international visitors to explore, enjoy and understand the natural and cultural heritage of the nation.
Tactic #20: Sectors of the park will be managed and developed to provide for a spectrum of recreation activities.
Tactic #21: The section managed for recreation will be located and developed to minimize conflicts with other park uses.
Tactic #22: Where tourism is an important activity, in conjunction with national development goals, the management and development of necessary facilities and services will be treated outside of the park boundary except where remoteness or particular circumstances dictate otherwise.
Tactic #23: Where the park is to be utilized for local recreation and international tourism, and where this involves two or more different cultural groups with largely different life styles, car must be taken to appropriately integrate the facilities, services and activities of the two user groups.
Strategy #8: National parks are to be planned and managed to support the conservation and development of rural lands, and, to the extent possible, to incorporate marginal lands.
Tactic #24: National parks are to be planned and managed in coordination with other institutions in the design, construction and maintenance of transportation and communications installations.
Tactic #25: National parks should be planned to adequately manage and protect sites which are of critical ecological or economic importance to the region.
Tactic #26: National parks should support efforts to provide stable employment by (a) providing year-round work to employees, (b) by providing supplementary work to part-time employees of other activities, and (c) by providing seasonal work opportunities to students and school teachers.
Tactic #27: National parks should design and operate educational and training services to support the intellectual and practical development of rural peoples.
Tactic #28: National parks should provide recreation services particularly designed to meet the needs of local rural peoples.
Tactic #29: National parks should incorporate marginal lands, wherever possible, to afford them stable land use and protection.
Tactic #30: National parks should support the research, development and education effort to design and foment alternative uses of marginal lands.
Strategy #9: National park management is to support water conservation.
Tactic #31: Wherever possible, watershed catchments should he included within park boundaries. While some catchments will have been included already by the analysis of previous objectives, other sites nearby may be annexed to the park to receive protection at little added cost.
Tactic #32: The research and monitoring activities of the park should place particular emphasis upon study and understanding of water resources.
Tactic #33: The education, training and interpretation programs should present this information and understanding to rural development efforts throughout the biological province.
Strategy #10: The management of the national park should control erosion and sediment to the extent possible, and relate to the security of downstream peoples, their capital and investments.
Tactic #34: Where erosion exists due to land use practices from the period prior to park establishment, appropriate means of stabilization should be applied.
Tactic #35: Where highly erosive areas lie near the park, and other wildland categories cannot manage the problem, these areas should be annexed to the park for appropriate management.
Tactic #36: And finally, all physical development and park activities are to be designed, implemented and maintained to minimize erosion and sedimentation.