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close this bookBioconversion of Organic Residues for Rural Communities (UNU, 1979)
close this folderThe role of ruminants in the bioconversion of tropical byproducts and wastes into food and fuel
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentNutritional limitations in the use of tropical by-products and waste
View the documentPractical experience with tropical by-products and wastes as feed for ruminants
View the documentAn integrated system for converting tropical feeds and byproducts into milk, beef, and fuel
View the documentReferences
View the documentDiscussion summary

Discussion summary

It was generally agreed that the presence of substantial amounts of starch in the ration of ruminants reduces the digestibility of cellulose in the diet, even when straw has been treated with alkali. While this could be significant in the feeds given to cattle in the industrialized, temperate zone countries, animal diets in India are so low in starch and sugars as to make this warning unnecessary.

The question was raised about the mechanism that controls voluntary intake of feed by ruminants. This is not really known, but it is thought to be controlled by hormonal action.

Concerning the advantage of by-pass protein, formaldehyde treatment of fish meal and fish silage have been used for animal feeds. Fish mea) prepared in this manner has been beneficial for ruminants, but fish silage has a better quality if left untreated. As untreated fish silage may have undesirable effects on ruminants, it should be fed only to nonruminants.

Another beneficial by-pass protein for ruminant feed is sewage sludge.

Reports from South Africa indicate that waste water containing algae added to diets high in sugar-cane residues has improved ruminant growth.