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close this bookBioconversion of Organic Residues for Rural Communities (UNU, 1979)
close this folderBiogas generation: developments. Problems, and tasks - an overview
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentWhat is biogas?
View the documentMicrobiology of CH4, or bio-methanogenesis
View the documentThe biogas plant-some technical considerations
View the documentEnvironmental and operational considerations
View the documentDevelopments and processes for rural areas
View the documentCost-benefit analyses
View the documentHealth hazards
View the documentBottlenecks, considerations, and research and development
View the documentReferences
View the documentDiscussion summary


1. J.W.M. LaRivière and E.J. DaSilva, "Farming Microbes for Food, Fuel and Fibre," Unesco Courier, June 1978.

2. J.R. Porter, "Microbiology and the Food and Energy Crises," Amer. Soc. Microbiol. News 40: 813 11974).

3. J.R. Porter, "Microbiology and the Disposal of Solid Wastes," Amer. Soc. Microbial. News 40:826 (1974).

4. J.R. Porter, "Micro-organisms as Natural Resources for Food and Energy," presented to the Asian Regional Seminar on Contributions of Science and Technology to National Development, New Delhi, 4 - 6 October 1978.

5. E.J. DaSilva, R. Olembo, and A. Burgers, "Integrated Microbial Technology for Developing Countries: Springboard for Economic Progress," Impact Sci. Soc. 28: 159 (1978).

6. M.P. Bryant, in H.G. Schlegel and J. Barnea (eds.) Microbial Energy Conversion, pp. 399 412, Erich Gottze KG, Gottingen, W. Germany, 1976.

7. J.W.M LaRiviere, "Microbial Ecology of Liquid Waste Treatment," Adv. Microbial Ecol. 1: 215 (1977).

8. J.W.M. LaRiviere, "Microbiological Production of Methane from Waste Materials," J. Sci. Soc. Thailand 3: 5 11977).

9. D,F. Torien, W.H.J. Hattingh, J.P. Kotze, P.G. Thiel, W.A. Pretorius, G.G. Cillie, M.R, Henzen, G.J. Stander, and R.D. Baillie, "Anaerobic Digestion - Review Paper," Water Res. 3: 385 (1);459111);5451111); 623 (IV) 11969).

10. D.F. Torien and J.P. Kotzé, "Population Description of the Non-Methanogenic Phase of Anaerobic Digestion," Water Res. 4:129 (i); 285 111); 305 (III); 315 (IV) 11970).

11. R.S. Wolfe, "Microbial Formation of Methane," Adv. Microbiol. Physiol. 6:107 (1971).

12. M.P. Bryant, E.A. Wolin, M,J. Wolin, and R.S. Wolfe, "Methanobacillus omelianskii, a Symbiotic Association of Two Species of Bacteria," Arch. Mikrobiol. 59: 20 (1967).

13. C. Bell, S. Boulter, D, Dunlop, and P. Keiller, Methane: Fuel of the Future, Andrew Singer, Cambridgeshire, U.K., 1973.

14. ESCAP Document RAS/74/041/A/01/01, "Biogas Technology and Utilization," ESCAP, Bangkok, 1975.

15. T.D, Biswas, "Biogas Plants: Prospects and Limitations," Invention Intelligence 12: 71 (1977).

16. M.J. McGarry and J. Stainforth, Compost, Fertilizer and Biogas Production in the People's Republic of China, p, 94, International Development Research Centre, Ottawa, IDRC-TS8e, 1978.

17. L.G. Fry, Practical Building of Methane Power Plants for Rural Energy Independence, L.G. Fry, Santa Barbara, California, 1 974.

18. U. Loll, in H.G. Schiegel and J. Barnea (eds.), Microbial Conversion, pp. 361 - 378, Erich Gottze KG, Gottingen, W. Germany, 1976.

19. National Academy of Sciences, Methane Generation from Human, Animal and Agricultural Wastes, NTIS Accession No. PB-276-469, NAS, Washington, D.C., 1977.

20. C. Prasad, N. Prasad, and A. Reddy, "Big-gas Plants: Prospects, Problems and Tasks," Economic and Political Weekly 9: 1347 (1974).

21. R.B. Singh, Bio-gas Plant: Generating Methane from Organic Wastes, Gobar-Gas Research Station, Ajitmal, Etawah, India, 1971.

22. E.J. DaSilva, A. Burgers, and R. Olembo, "Health and Wealth from Waste; an Economic Incentive for Developing Countries," Impact Sci. Soc. 26: 323 (1976).

23. J. Tinbergen, Reshaping the International Order: A Report to the Club of Rome, E.P. Dutton, New York, 1976.

24. J.R. Benemann, J.C. Weissman, B.L. Koopman, and W.J. Oswald, "Energy Production by Microbial Photosynthesis," Nature 268: 19 (1977).

25. A. Fernandez, Gobar-Gas Plant - How and Why, Seva Vani, May - June 1976.

26. G. Shelef, R. Moraine, A. Meydan, and E. Sandbank, in H.G. Schlegel and J. Barnea (eds.), Microbial Energy Conversion, pp. 427 - 442. Erich Gottze KG, Gottingen, W. Germany, 1976.

27. E.P. Eckholm, "The Energy Crisis: Firewood," World Watch Paper 1, Worldwatch Institute, Washington, D.C., 1975.

28. J. Parikh and K. Parikh, in H. G. Schlegel and J. Barnea (eds.), Microbial Energy Conversion. pp. 555 - 591, Erich Gottze KG, Gottingen, W. Germany, 1976.