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close this bookBioconversion of Organic Residues for Rural Communities (UNU, 1979)
close this folderBiogas generation: developments. Problems, and tasks - an overview
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentWhat is biogas?
View the documentMicrobiology of CH4, or bio-methanogenesis
View the documentThe biogas plant-some technical considerations
View the documentEnvironmental and operational considerations
View the documentDevelopments and processes for rural areas
View the documentCost-benefit analyses
View the documentHealth hazards
View the documentBottlenecks, considerations, and research and development
View the documentReferences
View the documentDiscussion summary

Health hazards

Health hazards are associated with the handling of night soil and with the use of sludge from untreated human excrete as fertilizer.

In general, published data indicate that a digestion time of 14 days at 35 C is effective in killing (99.9 per cent die-off rate) the enteric bacterial pathogens and the enteric group of viruses. However, the die-off rate for roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides) and hookworm (Ancylostoma) is only 90 per cent, which is still high. In this context, biogas production would provide a public health benefit beyond that of any other treatment in managing the rural health environment of developing countries.