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close this bookBioconversion of Organic Residues for Rural Communities (UNU, 1979)
close this folderProduction of feed as an objective for bioconversion systems
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentGeneral characteristics
View the documentManure as feed
View the documentSewage-grown micro-algae
View the documentConclusion
View the documentReferences


The use of agricultural waste as feed, directly or after some degree of processing, must be as old as agriculture itself. It is appropriate to point out, although the fact is fairly obvious, that the scope of the concepts "waste" and "residues" is not determined by an exact, technological definition. Thus, perfectly good bananas may constitute a waste under conditions of gross excess in supply over demand. Bran, once a residue of wheat flour production, has recently become a valuable product of the flour mill as a result of the increase in demand for food fibre. Often, the reason for treating a certain material as waste is the lack of adequate technology for upgrading it. Cashew "apples" are a well known example of this type of residue. One of the practical consequences of this situation is the impossibility of developing a universal solution, applicable to all types of wastes. In this presentation, I propose to review the general characteristics of the feed route as a process of big-regeneration.