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close this bookBiomass Gasification - Technology and Utilisation (Individual Authors)
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View the documentOverview of Gasification Technology
View the documentBiomass as Gasification Fuel
View the documentGasification for Energy Supply
View the documentGasification History and Development
View the documentGasification Process
View the documentProducer Gas and it´s Constituents
View the documentHazards with Producer Gas
Open this folder and view contentsGas Producers (Gasifiers)
Open this folder and view contentsImpact of Fuel Properties on Gasification
Open this folder and view contentsSuitability of Some Biomass Fuels
Open this folder and view contentsProducer Gas Drive Engines
View the documentConditioning of Producer Gas
View the documentTroubles with Gasification System
View the documentLiteratures on Gasification

Literatures on Gasification

The detail list of research papers, books and other related literatures on gasification is given below. The list is arranged alphabetically by authors name.

Allcut E.A. , Producer Gas for Motor Transport , Engineering Journal, V 25, n 4, 1942, PP 223-230

Allcut, E.A. and R.H. Patten, Gas Producer For Motor Vehicles, First General Report of the Subcommittee on Producer Gas, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Canada, 1943.

Allcut, E.A., Peoducer Gas for Motor Transport, Engineering Journal, v 25, n 4, 1942, pp 223-230.

Allcut, E.A., Producer Gas for Motor Transport, Automotive and Aviation Industries, v 89, n 9, 1943, pp 38-40, 42,44,60.

Amin , H., Preliminary Evaluation of an Automotive Gas Producer, General Motors Research Publication GMR-3431, F&L-709, Warren, Michigan, September, 1980.

Anderson M., Case for the Encouragement of the Producer - Gas Vehicle in Britain, Fuel Economist, V 14, July, 1938 pp 245-246, 256-257

Anonymous, Rhe soviet Producer - Gas Tractor, Gas and Oil power, March, 1945, pp 89-95

Anonymous , Producer Gas versus Petrol Operation in Germany, Petroleum Times , V 47, n 1193, p 190

Anonymous, The power Guide, Intermediate Technology Publication, London, 175-215, 1994

Annonymous, Wood Gas as Engine Fuel, FAO, Rome, 1986

Anonymous , Gas Producer for Road Vehicles, Engineering, May 26, 1939, pp 631-632

Anonymous , German Portable Gas Producer Practice, Engineering, V 155, May, 1943, pp 423-424

Anonymous , Improvements in the " Brush Koela" Gas Producer, Engineering, v 169, n 4398, 1949, pp 395

Anonymous , Official Specificiation for Portable Gas-Producer Fuels,Engineering February, 1940, p 150

Anonymous, A New Gas Producer - Gas ülant for road Transport, The Commercial Motor , January, 20 , 1933, pp 787-788

Anonymous, Alternative Fuels for Wartime, Gas and Oil power, October 1939, pp 235-238

Anonymous, An Improved Producer, Automobile Engineer, v 30, May 1940, pp 147-148.

Anonymous, Emergency Gas Supplies for Factories, Power and Works Engineer, V 36, June, 1941, pp 137-139

Anonymous, Forest Gas for Traction, Engineer, V 166, n 4311, 1938, pp 230-231

Anonymous Gas as a Substitute for Gasoline part 1, Petroleum Times, V 42, n 1073, 1939, pp 169-170,189.

Anonymous, Converting Diesels for Producer Gas Working , Bus and Coach, January, 1943, pp 13-24.

Anonymous, Discussion on Tests on Transport Producer- Gas Units, Discussion in London on the paper by H. Heywood, Meeting of the Institution of Automobile Engineers, July, 24, 1942, Institution of Automobile Engineers, v 149, p 34.

Anonymous, Gas Producer Tests, Automobile Engineer, v 32, n 417, 1941, pp. 418-420.

Anonymous, Gas Producer Tests, Automobile Engineer, v 31, n 417, 1941, pp 418-420.

Anonymous, Gas Producer, Automobile Engineer, November 5, 1942, pp. 433-464.

Anonymous, Gas Producers, Automobile Engineer, November, 1942, pp 433-464.

Anonymous, Gas Producers: Modified Governemnt Plant, Automobile Engineer, November, 1943, pp. 433-464.

Anonymous, Gasification Project, Utimate Chemical Analysis log, Agricultural Engineering Department, University of California, Davis, 1979.

Anonymous, Generator Gas the Swedish Experience from 1939-1945, Solar Energy Research Institute, Golden, Colorado, SERI/SP 33-140, January 1979.

Anonymous, Producer Gas : Present and Future, Gas and Oil power, v 40, n 473,
pp 49-50

Anonymous, Producer Gas for Road Vehicles , Engineering v 163, n 4248, 1937,
pp. 682-684.

Anonymous, Producer Gas for Road Vehicles, Engineer, V 163, n 4248, 1937,
pp 682-684.

Anonymous, Alternative Fuels for Motor Vehicles, Engineering, V 148, n 3847m 1939. pp. 387-388.

Anonymous, Gas Utilization for Automobiles, Gas Age, December 7, 1939

Anonymous, Producer Gas plant Manufacture, Gas and Oil power, v 37, n 443, 1942, pp 147-150

Anonymous, Producer Gas, Automobile Engineer, v 26, n 352, 1936, pp 475-478.

Anonymous, The P.S.V. Gas Producer, Bus ans Coach, November, 1942, pp 228- 230

Anonymous, The Tulloch- Reading Gas Producer for Motor Vehicles Engineering, v 127, May. 1929, pp 641-644.

Asplund, D., Peat as a Source of Energy in Finlanf, Peat as a Fuel, finn Energy 79 Seminar, The state Fuel Ventre, Jyvaskyla, Finland, January, 1979.

Bailey, M.L., Gas Producer for Motor Vehicles: A Review, Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, Chemistry Division, Report CD 2279, New Zealand , 1979

Bailie, R.C., Current Develop ments and Problems in Biomass Gasification, Sixth Annual Meeting, Biomass Energy Institute, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, October, 1977.

Bailie, R.C., Current Developments and Problems in Biomass Gasification Sixth Annual Meeting Biomass Energy Institute, Winnipeg, Manitoba, canada, October, 1977.

Bainbridge, J.R., The Road Performance of Motor Vehicles Operated on Charcoal Producer Gas, The Modern Engineer, March 1942, pp 25-32.

Baron, R.E., Chemical Equilibria in Carbon- Hydrogen- Oxygen Systems, Mit Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1977.

Billings, C.E. and J. Wilder, Handbook of Fabric Filter Technology, Vol.1, GCA Corporation, 1970.

Blackwood, J.D. and F. McGrory, The Carbon-Steam Reaction at High pressure, Australian Journal of Chemistry, v 10, 1957, pp. 16-33.

Bowden, A.T., Bench and Field Tests of Vehicle Gas Producer Plant as Applied to Farm Tractors, Institute of Mechanical Engineering, University of Western Australia, v 146, 1941, pp 193-207.

Bowden, A.T., Discussion on Bench and Field Tests on Vehicle Gas Producer plant, Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Australia, v 148, 1942, pp 65-70.

Branders, H.A., Producer Gas is the Motor Fuel of Finland, Automotive Industries, May, 1941, pp 482-485, 522-523.

Breag, G.R. and A. E. Chittenden , Producer Gas: Potential and Application in Developing Countries, Tropical Producers Institute, Report GI30, London, England, 1979.

Brownlie, D., Producer Gas Driven Vehicles, The Iron and Coal Trades Review, January, 1940, pp 121-123.

Bugge, G., Industrie der Holzdistillationsprodukte, Theodor Steinkopff Company, Leipzig, East Germany, 1927.

Bulcraig,W.R., Components of Raw Producer Gas, Institute of Fuel Journal, v 34, n 246, 1961, pp. 280-283.

Calvert, Seymour, et al., Wet Scrubber System Study, Volume I: Scrubber Handbook, U.S. Department of commerce, Ntis PB-213 016, August, 1972.

Campbell , J.L., Gas Producers: An Outline of the Compulsory Goverment Tests in Australia, Automobile Engineer, v 32, n 422, 1942, pp 156-158

Campbell, J.L., Gas Producers: An Outline of the Compulsory Governemnt Tests in Australia, Automobile Engineer, v 32, n 422, 1942, pp 156-158.

Caram, H.S. and N.R. Amundson, Diffusion and Reaction in a stagbant Boundary Layer About A Carbon Particle, Part 1, Ind. Eng Chem. Fundam. v 16, n 2, 1977, pp. 171-181.

Caram, H.S., and N.R., Amundson, Diffusion and Reaction in a stagnant Noundary Layer about a Carbon Particle, Part 1 , Ind. Eng. Chem. Fundam., v 16 , n 2, 1977, pp 171-181.

Clarke, J.S., The Use of Gas as a Fuel for Motor Vehicles, Institute of Fuel, Journal, v 83,n 10, 1940, pp 102-117.

Corey, R.C., Measurement and Significance of the Flow Properties of Cpap-Ash Slag, U.S. Department of Interior, Bureau of Mines, Bulletin 618,1964.

Cruz, I.E., A Status Report on Studies, Conducted by College of Engineering on Alternative Fuels for Internal Combustion Engines, University of Philippines, Mechanical Engineering, Diliman, Quezon City , 1980.

Danielson, J.A., Air Pollution Engineering Manual , U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1967.

DeGraaf , J.E., A Note on variation in Producer-Gas Quality, Iron and Steel Institute. Journal, v 157, October 1947, pp 183-190.

Dimitryew, A.P., Automotive Gas Geberation Used in USSR, Automotive Industries, v 83, n 70, 1940, pp 534-535., 551.

Dobbs, R.M. and I.A. Gilmour, Combustion of Coal in a Fluidized Bed Boiler, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Canterbury, New Zealand, April., 1976.

Dolch, P., Die Verflüchtigung von Kileselsäure und Silizium als Silizium-Sulfid, Eine technologische Studie, Chem. Fabr., v 8, N 51, 52, 1935, pp 512-514.

Dolch, p., Verrgasung von Steinkohle im Fahrzeuggaserzeuger, Brennstoff chemie, v 17, n 4, 1936. pp. 67-69.

Dolch. p., Über die Verflüchtigung von Silizium and Kieselsäure firch Schwefel and ihre Bedeutung für die Praxis, Montan. Rundschau, v 27, n 1, 1935, pp. 3-4.

Dowson, J.E. and A.T. Larter, Producer Gas, Longmans Greeb and Company London, England,1907.

Dowson, J.E. and A.T. Larter, Producer Gas, Longmans Green and Co., London, 1907.

Dowson. J.E. and A.T. Larter, Producer Gas, Longmans Green andd co., Londan, 1907.

Dunstan , W .N. , Gas Engine and Gas Producer Practice in Australia, Engineer, v 180, n 4688, 1945, pp 400-401.

Edgecombe, L.J., The Determination of Potential Tar in Antracite and Fuels Containing Small Amounts of Tar, Fuel Science and Practice, v 19, n 9, 1940, pp 201-203.

Edmister, W.C . et al., Thermodybamics of Gasification of Coal with Oxygen and Steam, Transaction of the American society of Mechanical Engineers, v 74, July 1952, pp. 621-636.

Egloff, G. and P. Van Arsdell , Motor Vehicles Propelled by Producer Gas, The Petroleum Engineer, v 15, n 4, 1944, pp 144, 146, 148, 150.

Egloff, G., and M. Alexander, Combustible Gases as substitute Motor Fuels., Petroleum Refiner, v 23, n 6 , 1944, pp 123-128.

Egloff. G., Fuels Used in sweden, petroleum Engineer, v 18, n 5, 1947, pp 86 -88.

Ekamn, E. and D. Asplund, A Review of Research of Peat Gasification in Finland, Technical Research Centre of Finland, Fuel and Lubricant Research Laboratory, Espoo, Finland.

Eke, P.W., Gas as an Engine Fuel, Transactions of the Institute of Marine Engineering, 1970, pp 121-138.

Ekman, E. and D. Asplund, A Review of Research of Peat Gasification in Finland, Technical Research Centre of Finland, Fuel and Lubricant Research Laboratory, 02150, Espoo 15 Finland , 1972.

Ekman, E.and D. Asplund, A Review of Reasearchof peat Gasification in Finland, Technical Reasearch Centre of Finland , Fuel and Lubricant Research Laboraartory, Espoo, Finland.

Enever, W.F., Gas Conditioning, Some Notes on Cleaning and Cooling Equipment , Automobile Engineer, v 33, n 436, 1943, pp 199-200.

Ergun, S., Kinetics of the Reaction of Carbon Dioxide with Carbon, The Journal of Physical Chemistry, v 60 , 1956, pp 480-485.

Feldman, H.F., al., Conversion of forest Residues to a Clean Gas for Fuel or Syntheisis, TAPPI Engineering Conference, New Orleans, Louisiana, November 26, 1976.

Forbes , W., Experiments with Gas Producer Vehicles in Cardiff, Passenger Transport Journal, November, 1939, pp 201-205

Foster- Wheeler Co., Air Gasification , Retrofit 79 Proceedings, The Solar Energy Research Institute, SERI/TP - 49 183, Seattle, Wash., February, 1979.

Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation, Gas from Coal: A Volatile Solution Energy Guidebook, 1978 , pp 108-110.

Fowke, W.H., Operating Results with Producer Gas, Bus and Coach, v 10, n 2, 1938, pp 84-86

Freeth, W.E., Producer Gas for Agricultural purposes, Jouranal of the Department of Agricultural of Western Australia, v 16, n 4, 1939, pp 371-414.

Funk, H.F. Treating Waste Material to produce Usable Gases, United States Patent, N 3970524, July 1976.

Gall. R.L., and J.D. Spencer. , Coal Behavour in Gas- Producer Tests, Coal Age, v 71, Garret, D.E. Conversion of Biomass Materials into Gaseous Products, Thermochemical Coordination Meeting, Fuels from Biomass program, Energy Research and Development Administration, Columbus, Ohin, April. 1978.

Giffen, E., et al., The Conversion of Compression-Ignition Engines to Producer- Gas Operation, Engineering, August, 1944, pp 98-159.

Goldman, B. and N.C . Jones, The Modern Portable Gas Producer, The Petroleum world, v 36, n 460, 1939 pp 3-5.

Goldman, B. and N.C. Jones, The Modern Portable Gas Producer, Institute of Fuel, v 12, n 63, 1939, pp 103-140.

Goldman, B. and N.C. Jones, The Modern Portable Gas Producer, Institute of Fuel, London, v 12 , n 63, 1939, pp 103-140.

Goldman, B, And N.C. Jones , The Modern Portable Gas Producer, The Engineer, v 166, December, 1938, pp 248-252.

Goldman. B . and N.C. Jones, The Modern Portable Gas Producer, Institute of Fuel, London, V 12, N 63, 1939, pp 103-140.

Goldman. B., Fuels Alternative to Oil for Road Transport Vehicles, Fuel Economist, V 14, July, 1938, pp 248-252 .

Goldman. B. and N.C. Jones, The Modern Portable Gas Producer, Institute of Fuel, v 12, n 63, 1939, pp 103-140

Goldstein , I., Wood Technology, Chemical Aspects, Am. Chem. soc., 172nd Meeting, San Francisco, August 31, 1976.

Goring, G.E., et al., Kinetics of Carbon Gasification by Steam, Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, v 44, n 5, 1952, pp 1051-2591.

Goring. G.E., et al., Kinetics of Carbon Gasification by Steam, Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, v 45, n 11, 1953, pp 2586-2591.

Goss, J.R.m et al., Transient and Steady- State Temperature Fluctuation in a Downdraft Gas Producer, Meeting of American Society of Agricultural Engineers, Pacific Region, Hilo, Hawaii, March 1980.

Goss, J.R., An Investigation of the Down- Draft Gasification Characteristics of Agricultural and Forestry Residues: Interim Report, California Energy Commision , p500-79-0017. November, 1979.

Goss, J.R., et al., Transient and steady- state Temperature Fluctuation in a Downdraft Gas Producer, Meeting of American Society of Agricultural Engineers, Pacific Region, Hilo, Hawaii, March, 1980.

Goss. J.R., An Investigation of the Down-Draft Gasification Characteristics of Agricultural and Forestry Residues: Interim Report, California Energy Commission, p 500-79-0017, Nov 1979.

Greaves - Walker, A.F., The Design and Construction of a Producer-Gas House for Clay plants , Transaction of American Ceramic Society, v 18, 1916, p 862-866.

Groeneveld, M.J. and K.R. Westerterp, Social and Economical Aspects of the Introduction of Gasification Technology in the Rural Areas in Developing Countries, American Chemical Society, Symposium on Thermal Conversion to Soild Wastes and Biomass, Washington, D.C., September, 1979.

Groeneveld. M.J., The Co-Current Moving Bed Gasifier, Thesis, Technische Hogeschool, Twente, Netherlands, May 29, 1980.

Gross, J.R., An Investigation of the Down- Draft Gasification Characteristics of Agricultural and Forestry Residues: Interim Report, California Energy Commission, p500-79-0017, November, 1979.

Gumz, W., Gas Producer and Blast Furnaces, John Wiley and Sons, N.Y., 1950.

Gumz, W., Vergasung Fester Brenstoffe, springer-verlag, Berlin, West Germany, 1952.

Gumz, W., et al., Schlackenkunde, Springer-Verlag, Gottingen, 1958.

Gumz. W., Gas Producer and Blast Furnace, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1950.

Harahap, f., et al., Survey and Preliminary Study on Rice Hull Utilization as an Energy Sources in Asian Member Countries, Development Technology Center, Institute of Technology , Bandung, Indonesia, March 1978, pp 193-236.

Hartet-Seberick R., Motor Gas- Producers and Their Fuels, Their state of Development with Special Reference to the Use of Fossil Fuels, Fuel, London, v 16, n 1, 1937.

Hawley, L.F., Wood Distillization, The Chemical Catalog Company, New York, 1923.

Hendrickson, T.A. Synthetic Fuels Data Handbook, Cameron Engineers Inc. Denver, Colorado, 1975.

Heywood, H., Loss of Power in Petrol Engines Running on Producer Gas, Engineering, January, 1941, pp 61-63.

Holman, J.P., Thermodynamics, Third Edition, McGraw-Hill Company, New york, 1980.

Holmann, A., Erdahrungen mit MAN Fahrzeug-Dieselmotoren im Dieselgasbetrieb, Automobiltechnische Zeitschrift, v 44, n 8, 1941, pp 198-202.

Howard, J.B., et al., Kinetics of Carbon Monoxide Oxidation in Postflame Gases, 14th Symposium on Combustion, Penn State Univ., August 1972, pp 975-986.

Hurles, T.F. and A. Fitton, Producer Gas for Road Transport, Proceeding of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, V 161 , 1949, pp 81-97.

Hurley, T.F. and A. Fitton, Producer Gas for Road Transport , Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, v 161, 1949, pp 81-97.

Hurley, T.F. and A. Ditton, Producer Gas for Road Transport, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, v 161, 1449, pp 81-97 .

Jankins,B.M. Downdraft Gasification Characteristics of Major California Residue- Derived Fuels, Ph.D. Thesis, Engineering University of California, Davis, 1980.

Jenkins, B., Downdraft Gasification Characteristics of Major Califorinia Residue-Derived Fuels, Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Agricultural Engineering, University of California, Davis, 1980.

Jenkins, B.M., Downdraft Gasification Characteristics of Major California Residue-Derived Fuels, Ph.D. Thesis in Engineering, Univ. of California, Davis, 1980.

Johnson, J.L., Kinetics of Bituminous Coal Char Gasification with Gases Containing Steam and Hydrogen , Symposium on Coal Gasification, Division of Fuel Chemistry, Meeting of A.C.S., Dallas, Taxas, April 1973.

Jones, J.L. and S.B. Radding, Solid Wastes and Residues Conversion by Advanced Thermal Processes, Amercian Chemical Society, Symposium Series,n 76, Washington, D.C., 1978.

Kaupp Albrecht, Gasification of Rice Hulls, Gate / Vieweg, Bonn, 1984

Kaupp Albrecht, Goss J, Small Scale Gas Producer-Engine Systems, Gate/Vieweg, Wiesbaden, 1984

Kaye, E. and A. Burstall, Gas Producers for Motor Vehicles, Institution of Engineers, Australia Journal, v 14 , n 4 , 1942, pp. 81-93.

Kennedy, W.B., Mixtures of Producer Gas and Petrol, Institute of Engineers, Australia, V 12, n 9, 1940, pp 259-263.

Knutson, J.etal., Crop Residues in California- Some Factors Affecting Utilization , University of California, Division of Agricultural Sciences, Leaflet 2872,1978.

Kralik, F. , Rail Car with Charcoal Gas Producer, The Engineer´s Digest, December, 1943, pp 24-25.

La rue, J. andG. Pratt, Problems of Compacting Straw, Sixth Annual Conference, Biomass Energy Institute, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, October 13, 1977.

Lang, W.A., Alternative Fuels for Motor Vehicles, Engineering Journal, v 26, n 8, 1943, pp 449-454 .

Langley. F.D., The Revival of Suction Gas Producer , Gas and Oil power, v 37 , n 446 , 1942, pp 236-240.

Lees, B., Particle Size Distribution of the Dust in Producer Gas, Guel, London, v 28, n 9, 1949, pp 208-213.

Lees, B., Ammonia, Hydrogen Cyanide and Cyanogen in Producer Gas, Fuel, v 28, n 5, 1945, pp 103-108.

Levin, Ernest M. and Carl R. Robbins, Phase Diagrams for Ceramists, The American Ceramist Society, Columbus, Ohio, 1964.

Lindmark. G., Swedish Gas Producer Buses, Bus and Coach, April , 1944, pp 266-269.

Littlewood, K., Gasification: Theory and Application, Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, v 3 , n 1, 1977, pp 35-71.

Lustig. L., New Gas Producer for Dual Fuel Engines, Diesel progress, v 13, n 5, 1947, pp 42-43.

Lustig. L., New Gas Producer for Dual Fuel Engines, Diesel progress, v 13, n 5, 1947.

Marchello, J.M. and J.J. Jelly, Gas Cleaning for Air Quality Control, Marcel Dekker Inc. New York, 1975.

Marks, L.S. and S.S. Wyer, Gas and Oil Engines and Gas Producer, Chicago American School of Correspondence, 1908.

Mellgren, S. and E. Anderson , Driving with Producer Gas, National Research Council of Canada, RP 15743, Ottawa, Canada, 1943.

Mellgren, S.and E. Andersson, Driving with Producer Gas, National Research Council of Canada, RP 15/43, Ottawa, Canada, 1943.

Meyer, W., The Supercharging of Internal Combustion Engine Plants Driven by Producer Wood Gas With Special Reference to Motor Vehicles, Brown Boveri Review, v 28, n 8, 1941, pp 206-208.

Michalski, W. and J. Spers, Conversion of Compression Ignition Engines to Producer Gas Operation, Gas and Oil Power, v 39, n 468, 1944, pp 244-249.

Middleton, F.A. and C.S. Bruce, , Engine Tests with Producer Gas Journal of Research of the National Bureau of Standards, v 36, February, 1946.

Miller, R.H.P., Gasogens, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, Wisconsin, 1944.

Mon, E. and N.R. Amundson, Difussion and Reaction in a Stagnant Boundary Layer About a Carbon Particle, Part 2: An Extension, Ind. Eng. Chem. Fundam., v 17, n 4, 1978, pp. 313-321.

Negretti, W., The Adaption of Turbo-Charged Producer-Gas-Operated Engines to Vehicle Running Condition , The Brown Noveri Review, v 30, n 7, 8, July/August 1943, pp 184-187.

Ngunlowo, A.S., Design Modification and Control for the Operation of a Single- Cylinder Air - Cooled Naturally-Aspirated Diesel Engine on Producer Gas Using Pilot Injection of Diesel Fuel, M.S. Thesis, Department of Agricultural Engineering, University of California, Davis, 1979.

Overend, R., Wood Gasification: An Old Technology with a Future ? Sixth Annual Meeting, Biomass Energy Institute Symposium, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, October, 12, 1977.

Parker, H.W. and L.H. Holmes, Alternative Energy Sources ofr Agricultural Applications Including Gasification of Fibrous Residues, Taxas, Energy Advisory Council, Energy Development Fund, 1979.

Partridge, J.R., Manitoba Crops as an Energy Sources, Sixth Annual Conference Biomass Energy Indtitute, Winninpeg , Manitoba, Canada, October 12, 1977.

Pavia, R.E., Woodgas Producers for Motor Vehicles, Institution of Engineers Journal, Australia, v 14, n 12 , 1942, pp 279.292.

Payne, F.A., et al., Gasification-Combustion of Corncobs and Analysis of Exhaust, Anerican Society of Agriculture Engineers Summer Meeting , san Antonio, Taxas, paper #80-3025, 1980.

Peart, R.M., et al., Gasification of Corn Cobs in a Producer Gas Generator, Third National Conference and Exhibition on Technology for Energy Conservation, Tuscon, Arizone, January, 1979.

Perry, Robert H. and Cecil Chilton, Chemical Engineers Handbook, McGgraw Hill Company,NewYork, 1973.

Porterm , J.C. and R. Wiebe, Gasification of Agricultural Residues, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Northern Regional Research Laboratory, AIC-174, 1948.

Rambush, N.E., Modern Gas Producers, Van Nostrand Company, New York, 1923.

Redding, G.J., The Effect of Fuel Moisture Content on the Quality of Gas Produced from the Gasification of Crop and Forest Residues, Master´s Thesis, Department of Agriculture Engineering University of California, Davis, 1979.

Reed, T.B., A survey of Biomass Gasification, Volume 2, Principle of Gasification, Publication '# SERI/TR-33-239, Solar Energy Research Institute, Golden, Colorado, 1979.

Reisner, W and M.V. Eisenhauf Rithe, Bins and Nunkers Company for Gandling Bulk Materials,Trans. Tech Publications, 1971.

Renton. C., Producer Gas Tests in the Queensland Railway Department, Institution of Engineers Journal , Australia, October, 1940, pp 274-278.

Ridley. C., Temporary Fuels, A Consideration of the Prospect of Their Permanency, Automobile Engineer, v 34, n 446, 1944, pp 63-67.

Roberts, R.P., Producer Gas Equipment on Tractors in Western Australia, Journal of the Department of Agriculture of Western Australia, v 15, n 4, pp 391-402.

Ruedy, R., Mechanical Troubles and Remedies in the Operation of Producer Gas Vehicles, National Research Council of Canada, RP 18/43, Ottawa Canada, September, 1943.

Ruedy, R., Sweden´s Gas Producers, National Research Council of Canada, RP 16/43, Pttawa, Canada, September, 1943.

Ruedy, R., Wood and Charcoal as Fuel Vehicles, National Research Council of Canada, n 1157, Ottawa, Canada, 1944.

Schlapfer, P. and J. Tobler, Theoretische und Praktische Untersuchungen Über den Betrieb von Motorfahrzeugen mit Holzgas, Schweizerische Gesellschaft für das studium der Motobrennstoffe, Bern Switzerland, 1937.

Selvig, W.A. and D.H. Gibson, Analysis of Ashfrom United States Coals, U.S. Department of Interior , Bureau of Mines, Bulletin 567,1956.

Shafizadeh , F., et al., Thermal Uses and Properties of Cagbohydrate and Lognins, Academic press, New York 1976.

Spiers, H.M., Technical Data on Fuels , Sixth Edition, British National Committee of the World power Conference, London , 1961.

Spiers, J. And E. Giffeb, Producer Gas: The Effect of Compression Ratio on Performance, Automobile Engineer, v 32, n 431, 1942, pp 523-527.

Srauss, W., Industrial Gas Cleaning, Pergammon press, New York, 1975.

Stairmand, G.J. and R.N. Kelsey, Chemistry and Industry, 1955, pp 1324.

Stern, A.C., Air Pollution, Academic press, New York, 1974.

Takada, S. and J. Sakai, Research on Gas Engine Driven by Agricultural Waste, The Bulletin of the Faculty of Agriculture, Mie University, Tsu, Japan, N 53, 1976, PP. 187-203.

Takeda, S., Research on Gas Engine 2, Annual of Institute of Tractor Research and Testing, n 3, 1979, pp 19-36.

Takeda, S., Development of Gas Engine (I) , The Bulletin of the Faculty of Agriculture, Mie University, Tsu, Japan, N 58, 1979, pp 137-141.

Takeda, S., Research on Gas Engine (II) , Annual of Institute of Tracter Research and Testing, Mie University, Tsu, Japan, N 3 , 1979, pp 19-36.

Takeda, S., Development of the Gas Engine , The Bulletin of the Faculty of Agriculture, Mie University, Tsu, Japan, n 58 , 1979, pp. 137.141.

Takeda, S., Development of Gas engine, The Bulletin of the Faculty of Agriculture, Mie University,Tsu, Japan, N 58, 1979, pp.137-141.

Tatom, J.W. Survey of International Biomass Gasification Equipment, Solar Energy Research Institute, Goldan,Colorado, Contract AD-8-1187-1, September, 1978.

Taylor, C.F., The Internal Combustion Engine in Theory and Practice, Volume I, The Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1977.

Taylor, G., Gas Generators Capture European Interest, Automotive Industries, V 82, n 1, 1940, pp 22-25.

Taylor. G., Gas Generators Capture European Interest, Automotive Industries, v 82, n 1. 1940, PP 22-25.

Telford, W.M., Some Notes on the Design of Mobile Producer Gas Units Gas and Oil Power, v 36, September, 1941, pp 179-181.

Telford. W.M., Some Notes on the Design of Mobile Producer Gas Units, Gas and Oil Power, v 36 , September, 1941, pp 179-181.

Tookey, W.A., Suction Gas Plant Development Fifty years Ago, Engineer, v 193, n 5028, 1952, p 754.

Treybal, Robert, Mass-Transfer Operation, McGraw-Hill Co., New York, 1980.

Tsoumis, G., Wood as Raw Material, Pergammon Press, New York, 1968.

Twelvetrees, R., Paving the Way for Producer Gas Operation , Bus and Coach, May, 1943, pp 104-107.

U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Control Techniques for Air Pollutants, Washington, D.C., 1969, pp 4-172.

Walton, J., Alternative Fuels, Automobile Engineering, v 30, March, 1940, pp 91-92.

Wen, C.Y. and J. Huebler, Kinetic study of Coal Char Hydrogasification Rapid Initial Reaction, Industrial and Engineering Chemistry process Design and Development, v 4, n 2, 1965, pp 142-147.

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