|Animal Husbandry - Initial Environmental Assessment Series No. 2 (NORAD, 1994)|
1. Lead to overgrazing and soil erosion?
Is there a risk of considerable overgrazing so that the feed supply is reduced and the growth and production of the animals is impeded?
· May land tenure in the area, ea. communal ownership, increase the risk of overgrazing?
· Is the terrain in the area hilly and/or covered by particularly vulnerable vegetation thereby especially increasing the risk of soil erosion?
· May possible soil erosion damage valuable occurrences of water in the area, ea. by silting, sedimentation and/or eutrophication?
2. Pollute air, soil and water?
· Will manure emit smell (ammonia and hydrogen sulphide) to the surroundings to such a degree that it will be unpleasant for people living in the vicinity?
· May ammonia and hydrogen sulphide from manure be produced in such great concentrations in air that it can do damage to vegetation and/or affect the health of humans and animals?
· Will there be a considerable emission of methane, one of the so-called greenhouse gases?
· May the amount of manure that is supplied to the areas be so great that soil and water sources are polluted?
· Is there a risk that surplus nutrients from manure are supplied to water occurrences in such large amounts as to lead to eutrophication?
· Can nitrogen from large amounts of manure seep through strata of soil and pollute the ground-water?
· Have the possibilities of utilizing manure for the production of biogas been assessed?
Livestock-based industries and transport:
(For a more thorough assessment of environmental impacts of industry and transport measures, see the initial assessment booklets 7 Transport and 9 Industry and energy).
· May by-products from food industries be used as feed so that this is recycled instead of ending as pollutant waste?
· Will waste from tanneries and slaughterhouses cause much pollution, or are there plans to utilize it as feed, fertilizers or other products?
· Tanneries: is chrome being used in the tanning process? Have precautions been taken to ensure that this does not pollute the environment?
· Will the project cause considerably increased transportation on poor country roads so that they are overstrained? Will such transport cause major dust problems?
· Will special care be taken when transporting live animals
so that they do not suffer or die during transport?
· Will the project create a great need of refrigerator and freezing facilities, for storage as well as transport? Will such plants contain CFC gases? If so, are there facilities for tapping such gases in connection with disposal of the equipment?
3. Lead to lose of valuable genes?
· May greater efficiency in animal husbandry displace plant varieties from the area and thereby lead to reduced genetic variation and loss of genetic resources in plants?
· May import of exotic livestock breeds completely replace local breeds, so that there is a risk of loss of genes?
· If replacement of local breeds by improved breeds from industrialized countries takes place on a large scale, have measures been taken for preserving endemic breeds, or for crossbreeding and selection of valuable genes?
4. Lead to increased risk of infection and diseases, and/or greatly increased medication?
· Has a survey confirmed that adequate veterinary services exist in the area prior to the launching of the project?
· May the stock population so large that there is a great risk of infectious diseases?
· Will watering sources, feeding places and/or pastures be exploited in such a manner that the population of parasites increases, and thereby the risk of outbreak of diseases"
· May inferior nutrition and lack of vitamins and minerals occur, contributing to making the extent of any outbreak of disease a major one?
· Is there a risk that livestock being introduced from outside will bring diseases with them that will infect endemic breeds, or will endemic breeds and wild animals represent a threat of infecting imported breeds?
· May chemical pesticides being used for spraying ant cattle dips, in order to eradicate parasites on the animals, be spread to the environment? (See also booklet 13 Use of chemical pesticides!.
· Will the use of antibiotics take place in a safe and controlled way, so as to minimize the risk of developing resistant microbes as well as causing pollution of the environment?
5. Affect areas containing conservation-worthy flora and fauna or vulnerable ecosystems?
· Is the project being established near to game reserves and/or national parks? If so, has the establishment a buffer zone in the border area been considered?
· Will the project have the effect that vulnerable and conservation-worthy forest ecosystem are removed or affected?
6. Affect areas containing conservation-worthy or especially beautiful natural and/or cultural landscapes, and/or areas containing historical relics?
· May the project negatively alter the visual character of the landscape? If so, have measures been proposed for a prudent designing of works and installations, adjustment to landscape as well as landscape management?
· Will the project cause conflicts with areas containing historical relics, burial grounds, landscape elements of religious significance or other objects that are important for the local population's sense of belonging in the area?
7. Lead to user-conflicts or other social impacts?
· May projects cause conflicts regarding land tenure, and will adequate attention be paid to conditions of communal ownership in an area?
· May conflicts arise over forestry interests or other forms of land use in the area?
· May the project, or the development initiated by it, lead to migration of settlements or an uncontrolled immigration into the project area?
. Is there a risk that immigration may lead to social unrest and conflicts between the existing population and the newcomers?
· Will the project lead to changes regarding the local population's utilization of other resources such as water, fuelwood, etc.?
· Will the project pay sufficient attention to the local population's knowledge of animal husbandry?
· Will the project lead to an increase of the work burden of women (and children)?
· Will import of new livestock pay sufficient attention to
the local population's traditions, taboos and other socio-cultural conditions
linked to livestock and