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close this bookAfrica's Valuable Assets - A Reader in Natural Resource Management (WRI, 1998, 464 pages)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentForeword
View the documentAcknowledgments
Open this folder and view contents1. Africa's Wealth, Woes, Worth
Open this folder and view contents2. Institutionalizing Environmental Management in Africa
Open this folder and view contents3. Building Capacity for Sustainable Management of Natural Forests in East Africa
Open this folder and view contents4. Participation, Civil Society, and Foreign Assistance to Africa
Open this folder and view contents5. Participatory Policy-making and the Role of Local Non-governmental Organizations
Open this folder and view contents6. Global Environmental Agreements and African National Priorities
Open this folder and view contents7. Adapting to Climate Change in the Context of National Economic Planning and Development
Open this folder and view contents8. African Development that Works
Open this folder and view contents9. Gender, Sustainable Development, and Improved Resource Management in Africa
Open this folder and view contents10. State and Community Conflicts in Natural Resource Management in Kenya
Open this folder and view contents11. Links Between Environment and Agriculture in Africa
Open this folder and view contents12. Nontraditional Agricultural Exports in Africa: Rewards, Risks, and Opportunities for Change
Open this folder and view contents13. Environmental Information Systems
Open this folder and view contents14. Africa and the Internet: Superhighway Checkpoints
Open this folder and view contents15. Africa Data Sampler: Spatial Data for Policy-Makers
View the documentAbout the authors
View the documentData tables and maps
Open this folder and view contentsSources and technical notes for data tables and associated maps
View the documentColor Maps Showing Physical features

Data tables and maps

Map 1 - Economic Indicators - Gross National Product (GNP) Per Capita and Annual Growth in GNP


Per Capita GNP (US$)

Data reflect GNP for 1993.


Average Annual Growth GNP

Estimates are based upon 1987-1995 data.

Table 1 - Economic Indicators


Gross National Product (GNP) 1993(a)

Purchasing Power Parity (PPP)
1992(b)

Average Annual Growth Rate


Total million US$

Per Capita (US$)

Total (million Int$)

Per Capita (Int$)

GNP 1983-93

PPP
1983-93

North Africa

153,523

1,275

345,309

2,957



Algeria

47,565

1,780

80,271

3,076

0.8

1.6

Egypt

37,246

660

125,842

2,274

4.0

2.1

Libya

26,840

6,125

36,531

9,649

(4.2)

X

Morocco

26,983

1,040

70,474

2,777

3.3

4.1

Tunisia

14,889

1,720

32,192

3,807

3.7

3.7

Sahelian Belt

16,610

364

34,409

799



Burkina Faso

2,932

300

6,183

651

3.2

3.3

Chad

1,262

210

2,955

504

4.2

5.3

Gambia, The

365

350

940

1,019

4.3

5.1

Mali

2,736

270

6,737

708

3.6

3.2

Mauritania

1,081

500

2,282

1,083

2.2

1.5

Niger

2,309

270

4,711

629

0.6

(0.5)

Senegal

5,927

750

10,601

1,411

2.6

2.4

East Africa and Sudan

32,726

198

112,057

698



Burundi

1,085

180

4,149

710

3.8

4.5

Ethiopia

5,722

100

17,245

405

X

0.1

Kenya

6,844

270

29,024

1,176

3.7

4.5

Rwanda

1,586

210

7,071

961

1.1

2.1

Somalia

1,134

131

8,849

1,040

2.0

2.8

Sudan

10,589

493

18,304

725

X

0.9

Tanzania

2,522

90

15,912

663

4.0

8.2

Uganda

3,245

180

11,504

654

3.9

(1.2)

Humid West Africa

55,931

354

171,630

1,119



Benin

2,187

430

5,948

1,245

2.5

1.2

Côte d'Ivoire

8,389

630

16,882

1,315

(0.8)

(0.6)

Ghana

7,072

430

19,921

1,249

4.7

5.4

Guinea

3,153

500

3,694

604

4.2

3.5

Guinea-Bissau

247

240

832

827

5.2

2.4

Liberia

1,313

560

2,272

1,001

(0.6)

(1.7)

Nigeria

31,579

300

115,579

1,132

5.1

1.2

Sierra Leone

670

150

3,984

914

(0.1)

0.0

Togo

1,321

340

2,517

669

1.2

2.4

The Congo Basin

28,579

486

44,621

783



Cameroon

10,268

820

13,667

1,122

(1.9)

(0.4)

Central African Republic

1,262

400

1,950

634

0.4

0.8

Congo

2,321

950

6,012

2,538

0.7

1.0

Democratic Republic of Congo

9,574

264

19,049

526

2.1

2.6

Equatorial Guinea

159

420

X

X

3.5

X

Gabon

4,995

4,960

3,943

3,983

0.3

(0.2)

Southern Africa

143,927

1,433

212,794

2,433



Angola

4,422

410

6,947

3,076

X

3.7

Botswana

3,909

2,790

4,202

3,406

9.6

6.4

Lesotho

1,263

650

1,942

1,027

2.4

2.5

Malawi

2,104

200

6,092

607

3.0

5.1

Mozambique

1,359

90

13,369

898

3.1

(0.2)

Namibia

2,659

1,820

4,596

3,231

4.9

2.8

South Africa

118,184

2,980

150,608

3,885

1.2

1.4

Swaziland

1,047

1,190

2,259

2,950

4.0

4.1

Zambia

3,396

380

7,360

877

1.4

1.0

Zimbabwe

5,584

520

15,419

1,479

2.8

2.3

Insular Africa

6,354

416

18,820

1,265



Madagascar

3,048

220

10,148

757

1.3

0.5

Mauritius

3,306

3,030

8,672

8,025

7.0

6.6

Source: The World Bank, The United Nations Population Division, and Penn World Tables.

Notes: a) Current U.S. dollars, b) Current 1992 international dollars.

Estimates are based on 1987-1995 data, depending upon the country.

X means data are not available.

Map 2 - Development AID and External Debt - Official Development Assistance (ODA) Per Capita and Current Borrowing Per Capita


ODA Per Capita for 1995 (US$)


Current Borrowing Per Capita (US$)

Data reflect the average for 1991-1993.

Table 2 - Development Aid and External Debt


Average Annual Official Development Assistance (ODA) (million US$)

ODA as a Percentage of GNP

1995 ODA Per Capita (US$)

Total External Debt (million US$)

Current Borrowing Per Capita (US$)


1984-86

1995

1995


1981-83

1995

1991-93

North Africa

421

497



62,188

99,071


Algeria

80

310

0.8

11.1

17,461

32,610

260.7

Djibouti

X

103

X

163.0

X

260

X

Egypt

1,784

1,994

4.3

34.5

28,703

34,116

27.7

Libya

(43)

7

X

1.3

X

X

X

Morocco

513

497

1.6

18.7

12,211

22,147

60.0

Tunisia

189

71

0.4

7.9

3,812

9,938

137.8

Sahelian Belt

240

352



5,622

13,613


Burkina Faso

223

483

21.0

46.5

359

1,267

15.5

Chad

154

237

21.3

36.8

189

908

16.9

Gambia, The

68

46

12.2

41.4

198

426

36.7

Mali

365

546

23.1

55.8

902

3,066

10.1

Mauritania

203

222

21.9

97.6

1,128

2,467

60.6

Niger

258

268

14.4

29.7

976

1,634

10.0

Senegal

410

662

14.0

78.2

1,870

3,845

27.4

East Africa and Sudan

316

514



17,602

45,965


Burundi

157

189

18.0

30.2

238

1,157

15.4

Eritrea

X

145

X

40.6

X

X

X

Ethiopia

X

876

16.8

15.5

1,285

5,221

7.6

Kenya

435

706

8.0

26.5

3,415

7,381

21.4

Rwanda

186

611

54,0

95.5

219

1,008

9.3

Somalia

405

191

X

20.1

1,229

2,678

0.5

Sudan

905

225

X

8.4

7,003

17,623

4.3

Tanzania

579

874

25.3

29.5

3,341

7,333

11.5

Uganda

181

804

14.4

42.0

871

3.564

13.6

Humid West Africa

121

372



29,327

70,453


Benin

104

276

13.7

50.5

626

1,646

19.0

Côte d'Ivoire

146

1,200

13.4

85.9

8,633

18,952

60.5

Ghana

265

644

10.4

37.7

1,553

5,874

24.4

Guinea

157

392

11.0

59.5

1,350

3,242

39.7

Guinea-Bissau

66

119

46.9

110.9

162

894

31.4

Liberia

107

120

X

43.8

907

2,127

0.3

Nigeria

42

208

0.8

1.9

14,543

35,005

6.7

Sierra Leone

74

205

26.6

48.8

605

1,226

13.2

Togo

133

188

15.3

46.0

949

1,486

11.1

The Congo Basin

143

182



11,053

34,248


Cameroon

190

444

6.1

33.4

2,668

9,350

40.5

Central African Republic

119

161

14.5

49.3

249

944

21.4

Congo

96

125

7.0

47.5

1,841

6,031

88.3

Democratic Republic of Congo

362

185

3.6

4.2

5,168

13,137

3.7

Equatorial Guinea

18

33

21.8

81.5

111

293

33.1

Gabon

72

143

3.9

133.2

1.017

4,492

96.8

Southern Africa

151

526



6,850

32,751


Angola

117

420

10.1

39.0

X

11,482

39.3

Botswana

101

92

2.1

63.4

205

699

74.9

Lesotho

94

114

7.7

57.5

112

659

33.0

Malawi

157

429

30.2

44.0

851

2,140

16.5

Mozambique

413

1,059

81.3

65.5

X

5,781

10.5

Namibia

X

188

6.1

121.6

X

X

X

South Africa

X

384

0.3

9.3

X

X

X

Swaziland

30

54

5.2

60.5

212

251

16.9

Zambia

345

2,029

53.1

226.0

3,697

6,853

35.7

Zimbabwe

256

490

7.9

44.5

1,774

4,885

61.6

Insular Africa

X

162



X

6,103


Madagascar

236

301

9.9

22.1

X

4,302

10.6

Mauritius

40

23

0.6

20.6

1,879

1,801

113.5

Sources: Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development, the World Bank, and the United Nations Population Division.

Notes: For ODA, flows to recipients are shown as positive numbers; flows from donors are shown as negative numbers.

X means data are not available.

Map 3 - Population Dynamics - Mean Population Growth and Percent Urban Population


Mean Population (percent)

Data reflect a 1995 estimate based on demographic models.


Mean Population (Percent of Total Population)

Data reflect the 1995 midyear population of urban areas.

Table 3 - Population Dynamics


Population Estimates (millions)

Percent Urban

Mean Rate of Population Growth (1995 estimate)


1950

1995

2025

1995

General

Urban

Rural

North Africa

44,161

131,724

210,556

51.5




Algeria

8,753

28,109

47,322

55.7

2.4

3.9

0.7

Djibouti

62

601

1,134

82.1

3.0

3.5

1.0

Egypt

21,834

62,096

95,766

44.6

2.0

2.3

1.7

Libya

1,029

5,407

12,885

85.4

3.5

4.3

(0.8)

Morocco

8,953

26,524

39,925

51.9

2.0

3.4

0.5

Tunisia

3,530

8,987

13,524

62.0

1.9

3.3

(0.1)

Sahelian Belt

15,851

48,457

106,382

26.3




Burkina Faso

3,654

10,479

23,451

15.9

2.9

6.0

2.3

Chad

2,658

6,335

12,648

22.2

2.6

3.7

2.3

Gambia, The

294

1,111

1,984

29.0

3.8

6.2

2.8

Mali

3,520

10,795

24,575

26.8

3.2

5.6

2.4

Mauritania

825

2,274

4,443

51.2

2.5

5.8

(0.4)

Niger

2,400

9,151

22,385

18.2

3.4

5.8

2.9

Senegal

2,500

8,312

16,896

43.7

2.5

4.1

1.4

East Africa and Sudan

55,325

183,886

396,254

20.8




Burundi

2,456

6,064

12,341

7.5

2.0

5.6

1.7

Eritrea

1,140

3,171

6,504

17.1

1.9

3.5

1.6

Ethiopia

18,434

56,404

136,288

15.4

3.2

5.9

2.7

Kenya

6,265

27,150

50,202

28.6

2.9

6.4

1.7

Rwanda

2,120

5,184

12,981

5.7

(5.9)

(4.7)

(6.0)

Somalia

3,072

9,491

23,669

25.6

1.9

3.1

1.5

Sudan

9,190

26,707

46,850

31.4

2.1

5.4

0.8

Tanzania

7,886

30,026

62,436

24.2

3.3

6.3

2.4

Uganda

4,762

19,689

44,983

12.5

3.4

5.7

3.0

Humid West Africa

49,809

166,983

352,153

38.6




Benin

2,046

5,409

12,276

38.4

2.9

5.0

1.7

Côte d'Ivoire

2,776

13,694

24,397

43.4

3.2

4.6

2.1

Ghana

4,900

17,338

36,341

35.9

2.9

4.0

2.3

Guinea

2,550

7,349

15,286

29.2

4.9

7.5

3.9

Guinea-Bissau

505

1,069

1,921

21.7

2.1

3.7

1.6

Liberia

824

2,123

6,573

45.0

(3.9)

(2.6)

(4.9)

Nigeria

32,935

111,721

238,397

39.6

3.0

5.4

1.6

Sierra Leone

1,944

4,195

8,200

33.3

1.0

3.0

0.0

Togo

1,329

4,085

8,762

30.7

3.0

4.5

2.3

The Congo Basin

19,467

65,987

149,115

34.0




Cameroon

4,466

13,192

28,521

44.7

2.8

4.9

1.2

Central African Republic

1,314

3,273

6,006

39.1

2.2

3.1

1.7

Congo

808

2,593

5,747

58.4

3.0

4.8

0.7

Democratic Republic of Congo

12,184

45,453

105,925

28.7

3.9

4.4

3.7

Equatorial Guinea

226

400

798

42.2

2.6

5.9

0.4

Gabon

469

1,076

2,118

50.1

2.8

5.2

0.7

Southern Africa

33,961

104,355

199,794

38.5




Angola

4,131

10,816

25,547

31,0

3.2

5.5

2,2

Botswana

389

1,450

2,576

60.0

2.6

10.0

(5.0)

Lesotho

734

2,027

4,031

24.0

2.6

6.1

1.6

Malawi

2,881

9,673

20,391

13.5

0.7

3.3

0.4

Mozambique

6,198

17,260

35,444

33.8

3.9

8.7

1.9

Namibia

511

1,536

2,999

36.0

2.6

5.5

1.1

South Africa

13,683

41,465

71,621

49.3

2.2

2.5

2.1

Swaziland

264

857

1,675

31.1

2.8

6.1

1.5

Zambia

2,440

8,081

16,163

43.0

2.2

2.7

1.9

Zimbabwe

2,730

11,190

19,347

31.8

2.5

4.8

1.6

Insular Africa

4,722

15,991

35,957

33.5




Madagascar

4,229

14,874

34,476

26.4

3.3

5.6

2.5

Mauritius

493

1,117

1,481

40.5

1.1

1.1

1.1

Sources: United Nations Population Division and International Labour Office.

X means data are not available; negative numbers are shown in parentheses.

Map 4 - Life Expectancy, Fertility and Mortality - Life Expectancy at Birth and Total Fertility Rate


Life Expectancy at Birth (years)

Data reflect the average for 1990-1995.


Total Fertility Rate (children per woman)

Data reflect the average for 1990-1995.

Table 4 - Life Expectancy, Fertility and Infant Mortality


Life Expectancy at Birth (years)

Total Fertility Rate

Infant Mortality Rate (per 1,000 live births)


1970-75

1990-95

1970-75

1990-95

1970-75

1990-95

North Africa

Algeria

54.5

67.1

7.4

3.9

132

55

Egypt

52.1

63.6

5.5

3.9

150

67

Libya

52.9

63.1

7.6

6.4

117

68

Morocco

52.9

63.3

6.9

3.8

122

68

Tunisia

55.6

67.8

6.2

3.2

120

43

Sahelian Belt

Burkina Faso

41.2

47.4

6.4

6.5

173

130

Chad

39.0

47.5

6.0

5.9

166

122

Gambia, The

37.0

45.0

6.5

5.6

179

132

Mali

38.5

46.0

7.1

7.1

203

159

Mauritania

43.5

51.5

6.5

5.4

142

101

Niger

39.0

46.5

8.1

7.4

167

124

Senegal

40.3

49.3

7.0

6.1

122

68

East Africa and Sudan

Burundi

44.0

50.2

6.8

6.8

137

102

Eritrea

44.3

50.4

6.2

5.8

136

105

Ethiopia

41.0

47.5

6.8

7.0

154

119

Kenya

51.0

55.7

8.1

6.3

98

69

Rwanda

44.6

47.3

8.3

6.6

142

110

Somalia

41.0

47.0

7.0

7.0

155

122

Sudan

43.7

53.0

6.7

5.7

110

78

Tanzania

46.5

52.1

6.8

5.9

125

85

Uganda

46.5

44.9

6.9

7.3

116

115

Humid West Africa

Benin

40.0

47.6

7.1

7.1

136

86

Côte d'Ivoire

45.4

51.0

7.4

7.4

129

92

Ghana

50.0

56.0

6.6

6.0

107

81

Guinea

37.3

44.5

7.0

7.0

177

134

Guinea-Bissau

36.5

43.5

5.4

5.8

183

140

Liberia

47.5

55.4

6.8

6.8

182

126

Nigeria

43.5

50.4

6.5

6.5

111

84

Sierra Leone

35.0

39.0

6.5

6.5

193

166

Togo

45.5

55.0

6.6

6.6

129

85

The Congo Basin

Cameroon

45.8

56.0

6.3

5.7

119

63

Central African Republic

43.0

49.4

5.7

5.7

132

102

Congo

46.7

51.3

6.3

6.3

95

84

Democratic Republic of Congo

46.1

52.0

6.3

6.7

127

93

Equatorial Guinea

40.5

48.0

5.7

5.9

157

117

Gabon

45.0

53.5

4.3

5.3

132

94

Southern Africa

Angola

38.0

46.5

6.6

7.2

173

124

Botswana

53.2

64.9

6.6

4.9

88

43

Lesotho

50.4

60.5

5.7

5.2

130

79

Malawi

41.0

45.6

7.4

7.2

191

143

Mozambique

42.5

46.4

6.5

6.5

168

148

Namibia

48.8

58.8

6.0

5.3

113

60

South Africa

53.9

62,9

5.5

4.1

76

53

Swaziland

47.3

57,5

6.5

4.9

133

75

Zambia

47.3

48.9

6.9

6.0

100

104

Zimbabwe

51.5

53.7

7.2

5.0

93

67

Insular Africa

Madagascar

46.5

56.5

6.6

6.1

172

93

Mauritius

62.9

70.2

3.3

2.4

55

18

Source: United Nations Population Division

Map 5 - Education - Adult Literacy and Female Primary School Enrollment


Adult Literacy

Data reflect projections for 1990 from past census figures. Disks reflect literacy for the total population of each country. A disk that is half white, for example, reflects 50% literacy. The relative size of the shaded areas reflects male and female literacy rates.


Percent of Females Enrolled in Primary School

Data reflect the 1993 estimate of females enrolled in primary school.
Numbers can exceed 100% (see note a) on Table 5.

Table 5 - Education


Adult Female Literacy (percent)

Adult Male Literacy (percent)

Gross Primary School Enrollment (as percentage of age group) (a)






Female

Male


1970

1990

1970

1990

1960

1993

1960

1993

North Africa

Algeria

12

41

39

68

37

97

55

112

Egypt

18

34

47

60

52

89

79

105

Libya

11

54

57

84

18

110

70

110

Morocco

9

26

33

52

28

63

69

90

Tunisia

17

56

42

73

43

113

88

123

Sahelian Belt

Burkina Faso

2

7

13

26

5

30

12

47

Chad

12

29

36

57

4

37

29

78

Gambia, The

7

20

28

48

10

57

21

81

Mali

4

17

11

32

5

24

13

38

Mauritania

17

24

37

47

3

62

12

76

Niger

1

5

11

18

3

22

8

37

Senegal

7

19

24

39

18

50

37

66

East Africa and Sudan

Burundi

7

19

30

45

10

62

33

75

Eritrea

X

25

X

45

X

41

X

52

Ethiopia

9

21

24

41

3

19

9

26

Kenya

27

62

59

82

29

91

62

92

Rwanda

18

44

45

65

29

73

65

75

Somalia

1

14

5

36

2

X

6

X

Sudan

9

28

33

53

11

48

29

62

Tanzania

21

49

55

75

16

69

33

71

Uganda

22

44

53

70

18

X

39

X

Humid West Africa

Benin

4

19

17

42

15

46

39

92

Côte d'Ivoire

6

24

25

44

22

58

62

80

Ghana

17

46

45

71

31

69

58

82

Guinea

6

18

25

45

9

30

27

61

Guinea-Bissau

17

36

43

63

15

43

35

77

Liberia

7

18

27

49

13

X

40

X

Nigeria

11

39

32

61

31

83

54

105

Sierra Leone

5

14

22

40

15

39

30

57

Togo

10

30

36

61

25

81

64

122

The Congo Basin

Cameroon

18

44

47

70

37

81

77

94

Central African Republic

5

41

21

60

11

62

50

99

Congo

21

59

49

78

X

X

X

X

Democratic Republic of Congo

28

61

61

83

32

58

89

78

Equatorial Guinea

29

61

65

86

54

X

92

X

Gabon

14

45

39

68

X

X

X

X

Southern Africa

Angola

7

29

16

56

14

79

30

86

Botswana

31

55

60

78

43

118

38

112

Lesotho

34

57

62

78

109

105

73

90

Malawi

20

37

58

69

26

78

50

86

Mozambique

6

18

26

52

43

51

71

69

Namibia

X

X

X

X

48

141

43

138

South Africa

68

79

72

80

X

110

X

111

Swaziland

44

71

53

74

X

116

X

123

Zambia

32

65

64

82

40

81

61

87

Zimbabwe

58

77

75

88

65

114

82

123

Insular Africa

Madagascar

43

73

56

88

57

72

74

75

Mauritius

55

75

76

85

90

106

96

107

Source: United Nations Children's Fund; United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization; and the World Health Organization.

Notes: X means data are not available.

Map 6 - Health Care - Percent of One Year Olds Immunized Against Tuberculosis and Prevalence of Contraceptive Use


Percent of 1 Year Olds Immunized Against Tuberculosis

Data reflect the immunization rate in 1993.


Percent of Couples of Child-bearing Age Using Contraception

All data were collected after 1975, and 80 percent date from between 1987 and 1994.

Table 6 - Health Care


Persons Per Physician

Births Attended by Trained Personnel (percent)

LOW - Birth-Weight Infants (percent)

Percentage of 1-Year-Olds Fully Immunized in 1993 Against:

Contraceptive Prevalence (percent) Any/Modern Method


1970

1990

1990

1990

TB

Polio


North Africa

Algeria

8,095

1,062

15

9

87

73

47/43

Egypt

1,898

1,316

41

10

95

89

46/45

Libya

2,717

957

76

X

91

91

X

Morocco

13,085

X

31

9

91

86

42/36

Tunisia

5,934

1,893

69

8

81

98

50/40

Sahelian Belt

Burkina Faso

97,121

X

42

21

72

47

8/4

Chad

61,898

X

15

X

34

13

X

Gambia, The

24,421

X

X

X

X

X

X

Mali

44,091

X

32

17

77

46

5/1

Mauritania

17,956

15,772

40

11

84

44

3/1

Niger

60,087

53,986

15

15

34

20

4/2

Senegal

15,810

18,192

46

11

69

52

X

East Africa and Sudan

Burundi

58,567

17,309

19

X

75

64

9/1

Eritrea

X

X

X

X

37

28

X

Ethiopia

86,122

X

14

16

46

28

4/3

Kenya

8,001

21,970

54

16

95

85

33/27

Rwanda

60,129

X

26

17

94

85

7/5

Somalia

36,295

X

2

16

31

18

X

Sudan

14,070

X

69

15

61

51

9/6

Tanzania

22,900

X

53

14

92

81

10/7

Uganda

9,213

X

38

X

99

74

5/3

Humid West Africa

Benin

28,570

X

45

X

88

72

9/1

Côte d'Ivoire

15,521

11,739

50

14

53

50

3/1

Ghana

12,915

X

59

17

70

47

20/10

Guinea

50,013

7,445

25

21

76

55

X

Guinea-Bissau

17,500

X

27

20

92

45

X

Liberia

12,591

X

58

X

X

X

6/6

Nigeria

19,834

X

37

16

43

29

6/4

Sierra Leone

17,826

X

25

17

79

63

X

Togo

28,857

X

54

20

75

53

12/3

The Congo Basin

Cameroon

28,916

12,152

64

13

41

33

16/4

Central African Republic

44,024

25,920

66

15

90

60

X

Congo

9,945

3,713

X

16

63

60

X

Democratic Republic of Congo

28,231

15,150

X

15

43

29

8/2

Equatorial Guinea

11,640

3,556

X

X

X

X

X

Gabon

5,250

X

80

X

97

66

X

Southern Africa

Angola

8,597

23,725

15

19

53

28

X

Botswana

15,207

X

78

8

50

57

33/32

Lesotho

30,400

24,095

40

11

98

76

23/19

Malawi

76,576

X

55

20

96

92

13/7

Mozambique

18,865

X

25

20

66

49

X

Namibia

X

X

68

12

92

79

29/26

South Africa

X

X

X

X

66

79

50/48

Swaziland

8,058

9,566

X

X

X

X

X

Zambia

13,645

10,917

51

13

88

62

15/9

Zimbabwe

6,301

7,384

70

14

79

69

43/36

Insular Africa

Madagascar

10,112

8,385

56

10

82

64

17/5

Mauritius

4,187

X

85

9

87

89

75/49

Sources: United Nations Children's Fund; United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization; and the World Health Organization.

X means data are not available.

Map 7 - Access to Drinking Water and Sanitation - Population With Access to Safe Drinking Water and Population With Access to Sanitation


Access to Safe Water

Data are for 1980-1995.
Disks reflect access to safe drinking water as percent of total population of each country. A disk that is half white, for example, means that half the population lacks access to a safe water source. The shaded areas represent the proportion of the population with access that is urban and the proportion that is rural.


Access to Sanitation

Data are for 1980-1995.
Disks reflect access to sanitation as percent of total population of each country. As explained above, the white portion of the disk represents the percent of the population with no sanitation services. The shaded areas represent the proportion of the population with sanitation that is urban and the proportion that is rural.

Table 7 - Access to Drinking Water and Sanitation


Percentage of Population With

Urban Connections to Safe Water Source


Access to Safe Water

Access to Sanitation





Urban

Rural

Urban

Rural

House or Yard Pipe

Public Standpipe

Other

North Africa

Algeria

x

X

X

X

X

X

X

Egypt

82

50

23

6

X

X

X

Libya

100

80

100

85

X

X

X

Morocco

98

14

67

18

X

X

X

Tunisia

100

89

98

93

93

4

2

Sahelian Belt

Burkina Faso

53

75

50

10

23

30

0

Chad

48

17

72

7

10

28

10

Gambia, The

92

51

50

29

42

50

0

Mali

36

38

99

24

18

14

6

Mauritania

84

89

34

X

X

X

X

Niger

46

55

69

4

29

14

3

Senegal

84

28

92

40

54

30

1

East Africa and Sudan

Burundi

92

49

74

50

30

62

0

Eritrea

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Ethiopia

70

11

97

7

X

X

X

Kenya

67

49

64

79

X

X

X

Rwanda

84

67

88

17

X

X

X

Somalia

50

29

41

5

X

X

X

Sudan

66

43

86

14

32

13

21

Tanzania

75

46

76

77

X

X

X

Uganda

47

32

74

58

X

X

X

Humid West Africa

Benin

41

43

60

4

X

X

X

Côte d'Ivoire

59

81

100

41

59

0

0

Ghana

70

49

64

33

46

7

18

Guinea

61

62

18

1

61

0

0

Guinea-Bissau

38

57

24

19

35

0

0

Liberia

58

8

49

4

30

2

27

Nigeria

63

26

51

29

33

24

6

Sierra Leone

58

21

55

31

X

X

X

Togo

74

58

12

20

30

43

1

The Congo Basin

Cameroon

42

45

X

X

X

X

X

Central African Republic

18

18

X

X

8

7

1

Congo

92

2

X

2

X

X

X

Democratic Republic of Congo

37

23

21

4

X

X

X

Equatorial Guinea

88

100

100

15

13

X

75

Gabon

90

50

X

X

X

X

X

Southern Africa

Angola

69

15

26

9

45

18

6

Botswana

100

88

100

85

X

X

X

Lesotho

57

57

3

44

31

27

0

Malawi

52

44

89

60

35

15

2

Mozambique

17

40

70

5

10

8

0

Namibia

87

42

76

41

72

14

1

South Africa

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

Swaziland

41

44

78

35

37

4

0

Zambia

64

27

67

25

X

X

X

Zimbabwe

95

80

95

22

X

X

X

Insular Africa

Madagascar

83

10

49

4

X

X

X

Mauritius

95

95

98

97

95

0

0

Sources: World Health Organization and United Nations Children's Fund.
Data are for 1980 -1995.

Map 8 - Energy Consumption - Per Capita Commercial Energy Consumption and Traditional Fuels as Percent of Total Energy Consumption


Per Capita Commercial Energy Consumption (gigajoules)

Data are for 1993.


Traditional Fuels (Percent of total Energy Consumption)

Data are for 1993.

Table 8. - Energy Consumption


Commercial Energy Consumption

Traditional
Fuels


Total

Per Capita



(petajoules) 1993

% Change Since 1973

(gigajoules)
1993

Change Since 1993 1973

Total (petajoules) 1993

% of Total Consumption 1993

North Africa

3,381


191


114


Algeria

1,183

387

44

173

19

2

Egypt

1,226

337

20

149

45

4

Libya

457

722

91

268

5

1

Morocco

297

166

11

63

14

4

Tunisia

218

264

25

125

31

12

Sahelian Belt

111


30


279


Burkina Faso

8

237

1

150

85

91

Chad

1

(55)

0

X

35

97

Gambia, The

3

241

3

75

9

75

Mali

7

96

1

65

54

88

Mauritania

39

508

18

267

0

0

Niger

15

255

2

114

47

76

Senegal

38

112

5

26

49

57

East Africa and Sudan

239


9


1,613


Burundi

3

241

0

X

44

94

Eritrea

X

X

X

X

0

X

Ethiopia

45

104

1

X

414

90

Kenya

90

87

3

(20)

344

79

Rwanda

7

387

1

186

53

88

Somalia

X

X

X

X

71

100

Sudan

48

(40)

2

(63)

220

82

Tanzania

30

(21)

1

(61)

330

92

Uganda

16

(5)

1

(37)

137

90

Humid West Africa

926


30


1,440


Benin

7

27

1

(48)

48

87

Côte d'Ivoire

109

195

8

35

103

49

Ghana

67

55

4

(13)

152

69

Guinea

15

35

2

(27)

35

70

Guinea-Bissau

3

105

3

18

4

58

Liberia

5

(74)

2

(84)

48

91

Nigeria

705

420

7

221

1,010

59

Sierra Leone

6

(46)

1

(75)

30

83

Togo

9

92

2

(7)

10

53

The Congo Basin

170


47


566


Cameroon

36

138

3

41

114

76

Central African Republic

3

18

1

(23)

34

92

Congo

24

331

10

146

22

48

Democratic Republic of Congo

73

45

2

(15)

365

83

Equatorial Guinea

2

184

5

80

4

69

Gabon

32

(11)

26

(59)

26

45

Southern Africa

3,888


109


705


Angola

26

(30)

3

(51)

56

68

Botswana

X

X

X

X

13

100

Lesotho

X

X

X

X

6

100

Malawi

11

58

1

(29)

133

92

Mozambique

14

(63)

1

(74)

147

91

Namibia

X

X

X

X

0

X

South Africa {a}

3,578

X

79

X

131

4

Swaziland

X

X

X

X

18

100

Zambia

51

(18)

6

(56)

130

72

Zimbabwe

208

67

19

(12)

70

25

Insular Africa

36


20


93


Madagascar

15

1

1

(51)

76

84

Mauritius

21

123

19

74

17

44

Source: United Nations Statistical Division

Notes: Commercial energy consumption does not Include bunkers for aircraft and ships in international transport or additions to stocks.

Map 9 - Land Use - Population Density and Percent Domesticated Land


Population Density (people per 1000 ha)

Data are based on 1995 estimates.


Domesticated Land As a Percent of Total Land Area

Data are for 1981-1993.

Table 9 - Land Use


Land Area (000 hectares)

Population Density 1995 (per 1,000 hectares)

Domesticated Land as a % of (Land Area (a)

Land Use (000 hectares)





Cropland

Permanent Pasture





(000 hectares)

% Change Since

(000 hectares)

% Change Since





1991-93

1981-83

1991-93

1981-83

North Africa

573,839

230

18

27,542


73,410


Algeria

238,174

117

16

7,938

7,0

30,752

(3.2)

Egypt

99,545

632

8

2,760

11.7

4,934

12.7

Libya

175,954

31

9

2,167

3.5

13,300

0.8

Morocco

44,630

606

69

9,781

15.9

20,900

0.0

Tunisia

15,536

573

52

4,897

2.2

3,525

5.1

Sahelian Belt

524,744

92

28

15,415


132,353


Burkina Faso

27,360

377

35

3,564

23.5

6,000

0.0

Chad

125,920

51

38

3,239

2.8

45,000

0.0

Gambia, The

1,000

1,118

27

180

13.0

90

0.0

Mali

122,019

88

27

2,270

10.6

30,000

0.0

Mauritania

102,522

22

38

207

6.2

39,250

0.0

Niger

126,670

72

10

3,605

1.5

8,913

(3.4)

Senegal

19,253

432

28

2,350

0.0

3,100

0.0

East Africa and Sudan

590,807

311

52

46,496


258,893


Burundi

2,568

2,489

89

1,357

3.9

915

0.5

Eritrea

10,100

350

60

1,280

X

1,600

X

Ethiopia

110,100

500

53

13,930

0.0

44,825

(1.0)

Kenya

56,914

497

45

4,517

5.5

21,300

0.0

Rwanda

2,467

3,223

66

1,167

8.5

453

(15.2)

Somalia

62,734

147

70

1,032

2.2

43,000

0.0

Sudan

237,600

118

52

12,950

3.6

110,000

12.2

Tanzania

88,359

336

44

3,500

19.2

35,000

0.0

Uganda

19,965

1,067

43

6,763

13.4

1,800

0.0

Humid West Africa

206,353

809

58

46,683


73,125


Benin

11,062

489

21

1,877

4.1

442

0.0

Côte d'Ivoire

31,800

448

53

3,703

16.7

13,000

0.0

Ghana

22,754

767

41

4,320

23.4

5,000

0.0

Guinea

24,572

273

25

730

2.4

5,500

0.0

Guinea-Bissau

2,812

382

50

340

13.7

1,080

0.0

Liberia

9,675

314

63

374

0.9

5,700

0.0

Nigeria

91,077

1,227

79

32,368

6.1

40,000

0.0

Sierra Leone

7,162

630

38

540

5.6

2,203

(0.1)

Togo

5,439

761

48

2,430

3.0

200

0.0

The Congo Basin

398,265

166

13

17,801


34,804


Cameroon

46,540

284

19

7,033

1.2

2,000

0.0

Central African Republic

62,298

53

8

2,015

2.9

3,000

0.0

Congo

34,150

76

30

170

11.6

10,000

0.0

Democratic Republic of Congo

226,705

194

10

7,893

2.9

104

0.0

Equatorial Guinea

2,805

143

12

230

0.0

4,700

0.0

Gabon

25,767

51

20

459

1.5

15,000

0.0

Southern Africa

591,372

176

49

31,249


257,744


Angola

124,670

89

26

3,483

2.5

29,000

0.0

Botswana

56,673

26

46

420

5.0

25,600

0.0

Lesotho

3,035

675

76

320

10.4

2,000

0.0

Malawi

9,408

1,183

38

1,697

22.1

1,840

0.0

Mozambique

78,409

204

60

3,163

2.7

44,000

0.0

Namibia

82,329

19

47

662

0.5

38,000

0.0

South Africa

122,104

340

77

13,177

(0.1)

81,378

(0.0)

Swaziland

1,720

497

73

191

35.4

1,070

(6.5)

Zambia

74,339

127

47

5,271

2.2

30,000

0.0

Zimbabwe

38,685

291

20

2,864

3.4

4,856

0.0

Insular Africa

58,357

305

47

3,210


24,007


Madagascar

58,154

254

47

3,104

3.3

24,000

0.0

Mauritius

203

5,502

56

106

(0.9)

7

0.0

Sources: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, The United Nations Population Division

Note: a) Domesticated land is the sum of cropland and permanent pasture.

Data are for 1981 -1993.

X means data are not available; negative numbers are in parentheses.

Map 10 - Forested Land - Percent Forest Area and Percent Change in Total Forest Area


Forest Area As a Percent of Total Land Area

Data are for 1990.


Percent Change in Total Forest

Data are for the period 1981-1990.

Table 10 - Forested Land


Forest and Other Wooded Land 1990 Extent (000 ha)

Forest Area



Total Forest

Natural Forest

Plantation



1990 Extent (000 ha)

Annual % Change (1981-90)

1990 Extent (000 ha)

Annual % Change (1981-90)

1990 Extent (000 ha)

Annual % Change (1981-90)

North Africa

11,138

6,906


5655


1251


Algeria

3,945

2,039

(0.9)

1,554

(2.0)

485

6.1

Egypt

34

34

2.0

0

X

34

2.0

Libya

846

400

3.8

190

X

210

11.0

Morocco

5,744

3,864

(0.4)

3,543

(0.7)

321

4.3

Tunisia

569

569

0.9

368

(1.5)

201

12.6

Sahelian Belt

103,718

38,904


38,739


165


Burkina Faso

13,813

4,436

(0.6)

4,416

(0.7)

20

12.7

Chad

32,450

11,438

(0.7)

11,434

(0.7)

4

7,8

Gambia, The

286

98

(0.8)

97

(0.8)

1

0.0

Mali

28,791

12,158

(0.8)

12,144

(0.8)

14

143.8

Mauritania

4,536

556

0.0

554

0.0

2

101.1

Niger

10,442

2,562

0.0

2,550

0.0

12

17,9

Senegal

13,400

7,656

(0.5)

7,544

(0.6)

112

118.0

East Africa and Sudan

231,805

100,270


99,402


868


Burundi

1,314

325

2.5

233

(0.6)

92

59.4

Djibouti

1,320

22

0.0

22

0.0

0

X

Ethiopia {a}

41,991

14,354

(0.2)

14,165

(0.3)

189

17.5

Kenya

16,816

1,305

(0.4)

1,187

(0.5)

118

1.6

Rwanda

946

252

1.8

164

(0.2)

88

9.4

Somalia

15,945

758

(0.4)

754

(0.4)

4

0.0

Sudan

68,955

43,179

(1.0)

42,976

(1.0)

203

7.6

Tanzania

68,497

33,709

(1.1)

33,555

(1.2)

154

12.5

Uganda

16,023

6,366

(0.9)

6,346

(0.9)

20

0.0

Humid West Africa

151,928

57,943


57,628


315


Benin

11,497

4,961

(1.2)

4,947

(1.2)

14

6.7

Côte d'Ivoire

18,952

10,967

(1.0)

10,904

(1.0)

63

10.0

Ghana

18,013

9,608

(1.2)

9,555

(1.3)

53

2.5

Guinea

17,484

6,696

(1.1)

6,692

(1.1)

4

5.8

Guinea-Bissau

2,162

2,022

(0.7)

2,021

(0.7)

1

0.0

Liberia

6,632

4,639

(0.5)

4,633

(0.5)

6

1.0

Nigeria

65,654

15,785

(0.7)

15,634

(0.7)

151

3.2

Sierra Leone

6,969

1,895

(0.6)

1,889

(0.6)

6

3.5

Togo

4,566

1,370

(1.3)

1,353

(1.4)

17

23.3

The Congo Basin

296,704

204,238


204,113


125


Cameroon

35,905

20,366

(0.6)

20,350

(0.6)

16

29.0

Central African Republic

46,753

30,568

(0.4)

30,562

(0.4)

6

1190.0

Congo

25,285

19,902

(0.1)

19,865

(0.2)

37

21.7

Democratic Republic of Congo

166,076

113,317

(0.6)

113,275

(0.6)

42

16.7

Equatorial Guinea

2,719

1,829

(0.4)

1,826

(0.4)

3

0.0

Gabon

19,966

18,256

(0.6)

18.235

(0.6)

21

5.8

Southern Africa

317,829

120,678


119,234


1,444


Angola

77,198

23,194

(0.7)

23,074

(0.7)

120

0.9

Botswana

26,561

14,262

(0.5)

14,261

(0.5)

1

0.0

Malawi

3,724

3,612

(1,1)

3,486

(1.3)

126

12.4

Mozambique

55,881

17,357

(0.7)

17,329

(0.7)

28

5.4

Namibia

26,296

12,569

(0.3)

12,569

(0.3)

0

X

South Africa

41,543

8,208

(0.5)

7,243

(0.8)

965

1.9

Swaziland

146

146

0.0

74

0.0

72

0.1

Zambia

60,337

32,349

(1.0)

32,301

(1.0)

48

7.8

Zimbabwe

26,144

8,981

(0.6)

8,897

(0.6)

84

2.0

Insular Africa

23,269

16,011


15,785


226


Madagascar

23,225

15,999

(0.8)

15,782

(0.8)

217

1.7

Mauritius

44

12

1.3

3

0.0

9

1.8

Sources: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe

Notes: The category, "other wooded land" includes forest fallows and shrubs in tropical countries. See Technical Notes for more detailed definitions.

X means data are not available; negative numbers are in parentheses.

Table 11 - Ratification of Major Conventions

COUNTRY

Convention on Biological Diversity

Framework Convention on Climate Change

Convention on Desertification and Drought

CITES

RAMSAR

Montreal Protocol

North Africa

Algeria

R

R

R

A

E

E

Djibouti

R

R

R




Egypt

R

R

R

A

E

E

Libya



R




Morocco

R

R

R

R

E

E

Tunisia

R

R

R

R

E

E

Sahelian Belt

Burkina Faso

R

R

R

A

E

E

Chad

R

R

R

A

E

E

Gambia, The

R

R

R

A

E

E

Mali

R

R

R

A

E

E

Mauritania

R

R

R


E

E

Niger

R

R

R

R

E

E

Senegal

R

R

R

A

E

E

East Africa and Sudan

Burundi


R

R

A



Eritrea

A

Ac

R

A



Ethiopia

R

R

R

A


E

Kenya

R

R

R

R

E

E

Rwanda

R


R

A



Somalia




A



Sudan

R

R

R

R


E

Tanzania


R

R

R



Uganda

R

R

R

A

E

E

Humid West Africa

Benin

R

R

R

A


E

Côte d'Ivoire

R

R

R

A

E

E

Ghana

R

R

R

R

E

E

Guinea

R

R

R

A

E

E

Guinea-Bissau

R

R

R

A

E


Liberia




A


E

Nigeria

R

R

R

R


E

Sierra Leone

A

R

R

A



Togo

Ac

Ac

R

R

E

E

The Congo Basin

Cameroon

R

R

R

A


E

Central African Republic

R

R

R

A


E

Congo

R

R

R

A


E

Democratic Republic of Congo

R

R

R

A

E


Equatorial Guinea

A


R

A



Gabon



A

A

E

E

Southern Africa

Angola



R




Botswana

R

R

R

A

E

E

Lesotho

R

R

R



E

Malawi

R

R

R

A

E

E

Mozambique

R

R

R

A


E

Namibia


R

R

A

E

E

South Africa

R


R

R

E

E

Swaziland

R

R

R



E

Zambia

R

R

R

A

E

E

Zimbabwe

R

R

R

A


E

Insular Africa

Cape Verde

R

R

R




Comoros

R

R

R

A

E

E

Madagascar

R


R

R


E

Mauritius

R

R

R

R


E

Sao Tome and Principe



R




Seychelles

R

R

R

A


E

Abbreviations

Convention Names

(R) Ratification
(A) Accession
(Ac) Acceptance
(E) Entered into Force

CITES - Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species
RAMSAR- Convention on Wetlands of International Importance
Montreal Protocol - Part of the Vienna Framework Convention on Ozone-degrading substances

Source: Environmental Treaties and Resource Indicators (ENTRI)
Web site location - (http://sedac.ciesin.org/pidb/#searching)

Table 12 - Ratification of Other Environmental and Human Rights Conventions

COUNTRY

African Convention on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Convention on the Ban on the import of Hazardous Wastes Into Africa

African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights

North Africa

Algeria

R


R/A

R

Djibouti

R

R

R/A


Egypt

R

R

R/A

R

Libya

R

R

R/A

A

Morocco

R



R

Tunisia

R

R

R/A

R

Sahelian Belt

Burkina Faso

R

R

R/A


Chad

R

R

R/A

A

Gambia, The

R


R/A

A

Mali

R

R

R/A

A

Mauritania

R


R/A


Niger

R

R

R/A

A

Senegal

R

R

R/A

R

East Africa and Sudan

Burundi

R

R

R/A

A

Eritrea





Ethiopia

R



A

Kenya

R


R/A

A

Rwanda

R

R

R/A

A

Somalia

R

R

R/A

A

Sudan

R


R/A

A

Tanzania



R/A


Uganda

R


R/A

A

Humid West Africa

Benin

R

R

R/A

A

Côte d'Ivoire

R

R

R/A

A

Ghana

R


R/A


Guinea

R

R

R/A

R

Guinea-Bissau


R

R/A


Liberia

R


R/A

R

Nigeria

R


R/A

A

Sierra Leone

R


R/A

A

Togo

R

R

R/A

A

The Congo Basin

Cameroon

R

R

R/A

A

Central African Republic

R

R

R/A

A

Congo

R


R/A

A

Democratic Republic of Congo

R


R/A

A

Equatorial Guinea



R/A

A

Gabon

R


R/A

A

Southern Africa

Angola



R/A

A

Botswana

R


R/A


Lesotho

R

R

R/A

A

Malawi

R


R/A

A

Mozambique

R


R/A

A

Namibia



R/A

A

South Africa




R

Swaziland

R

R



Zambia

R


R/A

A

Zimbabwe


R

R/A

A

Insular Africa

Cape Verde



R/A

A

Comoros

R


R/A


Madagascar

R


R/A

R

Mauritius

R

R

R/A

A

Sao Tome and Principe



R/A

R

Seychelles



R/A

A

Sources: Environmental Treaties and Resource Indicators (ENTRI)
Web site location - (http:/sedac.ciesin.org/pidb/#searching),
University of Minnesota Human Rights Library -
(www.umn.edu/humanrts/instree/ratz1afchar.htm),

Abbreviations
(R) Ratification
(A) Accession
(R/A) Ratification or Accession

Table 13 - Human Rights - Political And Civil Liberties

COUNTRY

Political Liberties

Civil Liberties

Freedom Rating

North Africa

Algeria

6

6

Not Free

Djibouti

5

6

Not Free

Egypt

6

6

Not Free

Libya

7

7

Not Free

Morocco

5

5

Partly Free

Tunisia

6

5

Not Free

Sahelian Belt

Burkina Faso

5

4

Partly Free

Chad

6

5

Not Free

Gambia, The

7

6

Not Free

Mali

2

2

Free

Mauritania

6

6

Not Free

Niger

7

5

Not Free

Senegal

4

4

Partly Free

East Africa and Sudan

Burundi

7

7

Not Free

Eritrea

6

4

Partly Free

Ethiopia

4

5

Partly Free

Kenya

7

6

Not Free

Rwanda

7

6

Not Free

Somalia

7

7

Not Free

Sudan

7

7

Not Free

Tanzania

5

5

Partly Free

Uganda

4

4

Partly Free

Humid West Africa

Benin

2

2

Free

Côte d'Ivoire

6

5

Not Free

Ghana

3

4

Partly Free

Guinea

6

5

Not Free

Guinea-Bissau

3

4

Partly Free

Liberia

7

6

Not Free

Nigeria

7

6

Not Free

Sierra Leone

4

5

Partly Free

Togo

6

5

Not Free

The Congo Basin

Cameroon

7

5

Not Free

Central African Republic

3

5

Partly Free

Congo

4

4

Partly Free

Democratic Republic of Congo

7

6

Not Free

Equatorial Guinea

7

7

Not Free

Gabon

5

4

Partly Free

Southern Africa

Angola

6

6

Not Free

Botswana

2

2

Free

Lesotho

4

4

Partly Free

Malawi

2

3

Free

Mozambique

3

4

Partly Free

Namibia

2

3

Free

South Africa

1

2

Free

Swaziland

6

5

Not Free

Zambia

5

4

Partly Free

Zimbabwe

5

5

Partly Free

Insular Africa

Cape Verde

1

2

Free

Comoros

4

4

Partly Free

Madagascar

2

4

Partly Free

Mauritius

6

6

Not Free

Sao Tome and Principe

1

2

Free

Seychelles

3

3

Partly Free

Note: Ratings range from 1 (most free) to 7 (least free).

Source: Freedom House, "Table of Independent Countries: Comparative Measures of Freedom." Web site location: (www.freedomhouse.org/Political/frtable1.htm)