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close this bookAll that Glitters is not Gold - Balancing Conservation and Development in Venezuela's Frontier Forests (WRI, 1998, 60 pages)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentAcknowledgments
View the documentForeword
View the documentMajor Findings
View the documentMajor Recommendations
Open this folder and view contentsI. Introduction and Policy Background
Open this folder and view contentsII. Future Resource Use and Large-scale Development Plans
Open this folder and view contentsIII. On the Ground: Venezuela's Forest Policy in the Guayana Region
Open this folder and view contentsIV. Who Benefits from Economic Activities in Forests?
View the documentV. Major Findings: Risks and Benefits for Venezuela's Frontier Forests
View the documentVI. Major Recommendations: Alternatives for Sustainably Managing the Guayana Region
View the documentNotes
View the documentAbout the Authors
View the documentBoard Of Directors
View the documentWorld Resources Institute
View the documentThe World Resources Institute Forest Frontiers Initiative

Notes

1 Frontier forests are defined as "large, ecologically intact, and relatively undisturbed natural forests." See D. Bryant et al. The Last Frontier Forests: Ecosystems and Economies on the Edge (World Resources Institute; Washington, DC, 1997), p. 6.

2 D. Bryant et al., The Last Frontier Forests: Ecosystems and Economies on the Edge. (World Resources Institute: Washington, DC, 1997).

3 D. Bryant et al. The Last Frontier Forests; Ecosystems and Economies on the Edge. (World Resources Institute; Washington, DC, 1997), p. 25.

4 World Resources Institute, World Resources Report 1996-97 (World Resources Institute: Washington, DC, 1997).

5 IUCN, "1996 Global Protected Areas Summary Statistics" (World Conservation Monitoring Centre Internet site: http://www.wcmc.org.uk, May 1997).

6 "Strictly protected" in this case means all areas protected under IUCN categories I-III, which signifies that these areas are closed to extractive activity. Such areas can include national parks, natural monuments, and nature reserves. See World Resources Institute, World Resources 1996-97 (World Resources Institute: Washington, DC, 1997), pp. 262,270.

7 SOCSAL, Venezuela: Realidad Nacional (Caracas, 1995).

8 International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics (Washington DC, March 1997). Inter-American Development Bank, Pocket Profiles (Washington, DC, 1996).

9 CORDIPLAN (Oficina Central de Coordinación y Planificación de la Presidencia de la República), Un proyecto de pais: Venezuela en consenso (GOV, 1995).

10 Evidence suggests that deforestation can lead to decreased water levels and, by extension, a decrease in the hydroelectric potential of a watershed. For more detail, see N. Myers, "The World's Forests and Their Ecosystem Services" in G.C. Daily (ed.), Nature's Services: Societal Dependence on Natural Ecosystems (Island Press: Washington, DC, 1997), p. 218.

11 W. Cruz and R. Repetto, The Environmental Effects of Stabilization and Structural Adjustment Programs: The Philippines Case (World Resources Institute; Washington, DC, 1992).

12 A. Romero Dias, "Economic Contributions of Venezuelan Protected Areas: The Tragedy of the Commons and Perspectives" in M. Munasinghe and J. McNeely (eds.), Protected Area Economics and Policy: Linking Conservation and Sustainable Development (World Bank and World Conservation Union-IUCN: Washington, DC, 1994), P. 122.

13 See GOV, "Decreto 2552: Mediante el cual quedan prohibidas las talas, deforestaciones y explotaciones de productos forestales madereros en todo el territorio federal Amazonas" (Gaceta Oficial no. 31,408: Caracas, 6/19/78); GOV "Decreto 269: Mediante el cual se prohibe la explotación minera dentro del territorio federal Amazonas y se ordena la suspensión inmediata de cualquier actividad minera en ejecución" (Gaceta Oficial No. 4,106 Extraordinario: Caracas, 6/9/89); GOV "Ley Forestal de Suelos y de Aguas" (Gaceta Oficial No. 1004 Extraordinaria: Caracas, 1/26/66); GOV, "Decreto 1742; Mediante el cual se dicta el marco general para la normalización de la actividad de exploración, desarrollo y explotación de oro y de diamantes en la cuenca hidrográfica del Alto Caroní" (Gaceta Oficial No. 34,783: Caracas, 8/23/91).

14 GOV "Decreto 1137: Por el cual se declara Parque Nacional con el nombre de 'Canaima', la región de la Guayana venezolana, ubicada en jurisdicción de los Distritos Piar y Roscio del Estado Bolivar" (Gaceta Oficial No. 38,809: Caracas, 10/1/75).

15 GOV, "Decreto 1738: Eliminación de Minería Degradante en el Estado Bolívar" (Gaceta Oficial No. 34, 744: Caracas, 7/25/91).

16 GOV "Decreto 1742" (Gaceta Oficial No. 34,783: Caracas, 8/23/91).

17 GOV "Resolución 036" (Caracas: Gaceta Oficial No. 35,665: Caracas, 4/6/95).

18 C.J. Sharpe et al., "The Effects of Structural Adjustment on the Venezuelan Environment as Illustrated by Trends in Basic Environmental Indicators," a contribution to the WWF-International/HIID Project: Structural Adjustment and the Environment (CENDES/UCV: Caracas, 1994).

19 J.C. Centeno, "Estrategia para el desarrollo forestal de Venezuela", unpublished paper, Mérida, 1995.

20 S. Mendoza, Director of SEFORVEN, personal communication, Jan. 7,1997.

21 1993 data from R. Bottome "Guayana Gold Rush: Making up for Lost Time", VenEconomy Monthly (Caracas, March 1994); 1997 data from E. Romero Gutiérrez, director general, Ministry of Energy and Mines, personal communication, Jan. 30,1998.

22 M.A. Perera, "El desarrollo sustentable: base de nuevos males o posibilidad real de crecimiento etnoeconómico?," in A. Carrillo and M.A. Perera, (eds.), Amazonas, modernidad en tradición: contribuciones al desarrollo sustentable en el estado Amazonas, Venezuela (SADA-Amazonas/CAIAH/MARNR: Caracas, Venezuela, 1995), p. 14.

23 E. Romero Gutiérrez, Vice-minister, Ministry of Energy and Mines, Jan. 30, 1998.

24 J. McNeely et al., Conserving the World's Biological Diversity (IUCN, WRI, WWF, World Bank: Washington, DC, 1990).

25 O. Huber, "History of Botanical Exploration", chapter 2 in P. Berry et al., (eds.), Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana, vol. L Introduction (New York: Editors Gral, 1995), pp. 161-192; R.S Voss and L.H Emmons, "Mammalian Diversity in Neotropical Lowland Rainforests: A Preliminary Assessment," Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History (vol. 230:1-115,1996).

26 IUCN, The Conservation Atlas of Tropical Forests: The Americas (IUCN: Gland, Switzerland, 1995), p. 318.

27 D. Schemo, "Legally, Now, Venezuelans to Mine Fragile Lands", New York Times (Dec. 8,1996).

28 Food and Agriculture Organization, State of the World's Forests, 1997 (Rome: FAO, 1997), p. 188.

29 L. Hernández et al., "Una vision sobre el manejo forestal en la Guayana venezolana (estado Bolivar)," report commissioned by the Regional Council on Government, Environment, Mining and Territorial Zoning of Bolivar State (Puerto Ordaz, 1994); L. Hernández et al., "Consideraciones sobre el plan de ordenamiento y reglamento de uso de la reserva forestal Imataca," report commissioned by the Environment and Land-Use Commission of the Chamber of Deputies of the National Congress, (Caracas, July 1997).

30 R. Herrera et al., "Amazon Ecosystems; Their Structure and Functionings with particular Emphasis on Nutrients", Interciencia (vol. 3:223-232,1978)

31 A. Luy, "La investigación en reservas forestales y lotes boscosos de Venezuela" (Sociedad Conservacionista Audubon de Venezuela: Caracas, 1992), p. 142.

32 C. Uhl and I. Vieira, "Ecological Impacts of Selective Logging in the Brazilian Amazon: A Case Study of the Paragominas Region of the State of Para", Biotrópica (vol. 21:98-106,1989); L. Hernández et al. "Una visión sobre el manejo forestal en la Guayana venezolana (Estado Bolívar)', report commissioned by the Regional Council on Government, Environment, Mining and Territorial Zoning of Bolivar State (Puerto Ordaz, 1994); L. Hernández et al., "Consideraciones sobre el plan de ordenamiento y reglamento de uso de la reserva forestal Imataca," report commissioned by the Environment and Land-Use Commission of the Chamber of Deputies of the National Congress, (Caracas, July 1997).

33 Before the Organic Land Use Zoning Law of 1983 all forest reserves were established by resolution. Many still remain created under ministerial resolution rather than presidential decree.

34 See C. Sharpe et al., "The Effects of Structural Adjustment on the Venezuelan Environment as illustrated by Trends in Basic Environmental Indicators", a Contribution to the WWF-Intemational/HIID project "Structural Adjustment and the Environment" (CENDES/UCV: Caracas, 1994).

35 J. C. Centeno, Estrategia para el desarrollo forestal de Venezuela, unpublished paper, 1995, p. 9.

36 J.C. Centeno, Estrategia para el desarrollo forestal de Venezuela, unpublished paper, 1995, p. 26; J.C. Centeno, El desarrollo forestal de Venezuela (Instituto Forestal Latinoamericano: Mérida, 1990).

37 See, for example, N. Sizer and R. Rice, Backs to the Wall in Suriname: Forest Policy in a Country in Crisis (World Resources Institute: Washington, DC, 1995); N. Sizer, Profit Without Plunder: Reaping Revenue from Guyana's Tropical Forests Without Destroying Them (World Resources Institute: Washington, DC, 1996).

38 J.C. Centeno, Estrategia para el desarrollo forestal de Venezuela, unpublished paper, 1995.

39 FAO statistics. Accessed from Database website: http://faostat.fao.org.

40 R. Hoeger, "Perfil Forestal de Venezuela", Revista SEFORVEN, no. 14 (MARNR: Caracas, 1997),

41 N. Sizer and R. Rice, Backs to the Wall in Suriname; Forest Policy in a Country in Crisis (World Resources Institute: Washington, DC, 1995); N. Sizer, Profit Without Plunder: Reaping Revenue from Guyana's Tropical Forests Without Destroying Them (World Resources Institute: Washington, DC, 1996).

42 L. Hernández et al., "Una visión sobre el manejo forestal en la Guayana venezolana (estado Bolívar)" report commissioned by the Regional Council on Government, Environment, Mining, and Territorial Zoning of Bolívar state. (Puerto Ordaz, 26 pp.); J. Ochoa, "El aprovechamiento forestal en la Guayana venezolana: evaluación ecológica e implicaciones para la conservación de los mamíferos de la región," doctoral thesis (Universidad de los Andes: Mérida, 1997).

43 For further discussion of the effects of high-level interference in environmental management policies, see MARNR/ILDIS "Planificación, administración y manejo de areas naturales protegidas," final report (MARNR/ILDIS; Caracas, 1988).

44 As an incentive to stimulate private investment, in 1983 the Ministry of Environment passed Resolution 506-A, allowing prospective concessionaires to extract timber from so-called "research parcels" without a contract, in order to finance the development of the final concession management plan.

45 J.C. Centeno, Estrategia para el desarrollo forestal de Venezuela, unpublished paper, 1995, p. l6.

46 J. Ochoa G., "Diseño de un sistema de corredores de vida silvestre en bosques productores de maderas de la Guayana venezolana," in A. Vega (ed.), Conservation Corridors in the Central American Region (Gainesville, FL: Tropical Research and Development Inc., 1993).

47 GOV, "Decree 1257, " (Gaceta Oficial No. 35,946: Caracas, 4/25/96).

48 S. Mendoza, Director of SEFORVEN, personal communication, 2/16/98.

49 For example, see N. Sizer and R. Rice, Backs to the Wall in Suriname: Forest Policy in a Country in Crisis (World Resource Institute: Washington, DC, 1995); N. Sizer, Profit Without Plunder: Reaping Revenue from Guyana's Tropical Forests Without Destroying Them (World Resources Institute: Washington, DC, 1996).

50 R. Rice et al., "Can Sustainable Management Save Tropical Forests?" Scientific American (April 1997). For a more global discussion of policy failures in forest management, see R. Repetto and M. Gillis, Public Policies and the Misuse of Forest Resources (Washington, DC: World Resources Institute, 1988).

51 Vincent et al., "Evolución histórica y desarrollos recientes de la silvicultura del bosque tropical alto en America" paper presented at CIFOR workshop: Pucallpa, Peru, 17-21 June 1996); H. Finol, "Ponencia en el taller de manejo forestal en la Guayana venezolana," workshop on Forest Management (Upata, Bolívar state, June 17,1994).

52 E.J. Segovia, "Evaluación de los sistemas silviculturales aplicados en las unidades de manejo de las reservas forestales y lotes boscosos," final report. (MARNR/Dirección General Sectorial de Información e Investigación del Ambiente: Caracas, 1989).

53 For a discussion of the impacts of enrichment strip planting on birds, see D. Mason, "Responses of Venezuelan Understory Birds to Selective Logging, Enrichment Strips, and Vine Cutting," Biotrópica (vol. 28:296-309,1996). For an analysis of the effects of selective logging and enrichment strip planting on bats, see J. Ochoa G., "Sensibilidades potenciales de una comunidad de mamíferos en un bosque productor de maderas de la Guayana venezolana," Interciencia (vol. 22:112-122,1997).

54 J. Ochoa G. "El aprovechamiento forestal en la Guayana venezolana: evaluación ecológica e implicaciones para la conservación de los mamíferos de la region," doctoral thesis (Universidad de Los Andes: Mérida, 1997); J. Ochoa G. "Sensibilidades potenciales de una comunidad de mamíferos en un bosque productor de maderas de la Guayana venezolana," Interciencia (vol. 22:112-122, 1997).

55 The density of trees greater than 10 centimeters diameter at breast height (dbh) varies from between 300 to 1200 individuals per hectare. See Franco et al., "La situación actual de la reserva forestal Imataca y propuestas para orientar su ordenamiento," report commissioned by the Ministry of Energy and Mines (Caracas, 1997); L. Hernández, "Bosques," Chapter 5.2 in "Ecología de la altiplanicie de la gran sabana (Guayana venezolana) I". Dezzeo N. (ed.), Scientia Guaianae (no. 4:80-94, Caracas, 1994); M. Euler and A. Chaviel, "La vegetación: bosques de tierra firme," in J. Rosales and 0. Huber (eds.) Scientia Guaianae: Ecología de la cuenca del río Caura, I, caracterización general (no. 6: 60-65,1996).

56 E. Sanoja, Universidad Nacional Experimental de Guayana, personal communication, 1994.

57 D. Mason, "Responses of Venezuelan Understory Birds to Selective Logging, Enrichment Strips, and Vine Cutting," Biotrópica (vol. 28: 296-309,1996); J. Ochoa G. "Sensibilidades potenciales de una comunidad de mamíferos en un bosque productor de maderas de la Guayana venezolana," Interciencia (vol. 22:112-122,1997); J. Ochoa G. "El aprovechamiento forestal en la Guayana venezolana: evaluación ecológica e implicaciones para la conservación de los mamíferos de la región," doctoral thesis (Universidad de Los Andes: Mérida, 1997).

58 M. Plonczak, "Die Nutzung der Naturwaelder in Venezuela," Allg. Forst-und Jagdzeitung (168:1997); L. Kammesheidt, "Bestandesstruktur und Artendiversitaet in selektiv genutzten Feutchwaelder der westlichen Llanos Venezuela, unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung einiger autooekologischer Merkmale wichtiger Baumarten," Gött. Beitr. Land-Forstw. Tropen Subtropen, (vol. 100:1994); E. Arends, "Impacto ecológico de la explotación selectiva en bosques de la reserva forestal de Capare, " summary of presentation, Asovac, Coro (Mérida: Instituto de Silvicultura, Facultad de Ciencias Forestales, Universidad de los Andes, 1994)

59 The impact of agricultural invasions on Venezuela's forest reserves is well documented. See J.P. Veillon, "Las deforestaciones en los llanos occidentales de Venezuela desde 1950 hasta 1975," in L.S. Hamilton (ed.) Conservación de los bosques húmedos de Venezuela, 3d éd. (Sierra Club-Consejo de Bienestar Rural: Caracas, 1977); A. Catalán, "El proceso de deforestación en Venezuela entre 1975-1988, " suplemento revista Ambiente (MARNR/DBSISAV: Caracas, 1993); J.C. Centeno "Estrategia para el desarrollo forestal de Venezuela," (Unpublished paper, 1995); A. Luna Cómo lograr el rendimiento sostenido en el manejo de los bosques tropicales (Instituto Forestal Latinoamericano: Mérida, 1996); L. Hernández et al., "Una visión sobre el manejo forestal en la Guayana venezolana (Estado Bolívar)," report prepared for the Regional Commission on Environment, Mining and Zoning in Bolívar State, 1994; D. Díaz Martín "Expansion de la frontera agrícola y deforestación en Venezuela," paper presented at the 5th International Meeting of the Latin American Forest Network, 10-13 July 1994, Quito, Ecuador.

60 See J.C. Centeno, "Estrategia para el desarrollo forestal de Venezuela," unpublished report. (Mérida, 1995).

61 A. Catalan, El proceso de deforestación en Venezuela, entre 1975 y 1988, (MARNR: Caracas, 1993).

62 World Bank, "Venezuela Land Markets, Land Reform and Rural Land Ownership," Country Department I: Environment and Agriculture Operations Division, Latin America and the Caribbean Region, report no. 10419-VE, 1993, p. 19.

63 Far from redistributing land equitably, the government's agrarian reform policy has done little to even out disparities between elite and peasant farmers. Despite almost 40 years of agrarian reform, Venezuela's land distribution remains among the most skewed in Latin America. According to the 1988 Agricultural Census, over 60 percent of farmers own less than 3 percent of agricultural land, while less than 2 percent own almost 60 percent of the agricultural land, virtually the same distribution that existed when the Agrarian Reform was instituted. See World Bank, "Venezuela Land Markets, Land Reform and Rural Land Ownership," Country Department I: Environment and Agriculture Operations Division, Latin America and the Caribbean Region, report no. 10419-VE, 1993, p. 23.

64 A. Romero Dias, "Economic Contributions of Venezuelan Protected Areas: The Tragedy of the Commons and Perspectives" in M. Munasinghe and J. McNeely (eds.), Protected Area Economics and Policy: Linking Conservation and Sustainable Development (World Bank and World Conservation Union-IUCN: Washington, DC, 1994); L. Hernández et al., "Una vision sobre el manejo forestal en la Guayana venezolana (Estado Bolívar)," report prepared for the Regional Commission on Environment, Mining and Zoning in Bolívar state, 1994; J.C. Centeno, "Estrategia para el desarrollo forestal de Venezuela," unpublished paper, 1995.

65 D. Díaz Martín, "Expansión de la frontera agrícola y deforestación en Venezuela," paper presented at the 5th International Meeting of the Latin American Forest Network, 10-13 July 1994, Quito, Ecuador.

66 Government of Delta Amacuro state, "Gaceta oficial del estado Delta Amacuro" no. 017 extraordinario (Tucupita, Venezuela: 15 December, 1996).

67 All of the forest reserves and woodland lots north of the Orinoco can be characterized as degraded from either agricultural encroachment or the effects of forest management practices. See CJ. Sharpe et al., "The Effects of Structural Adjustment on the Venezuelan Environment as Illustrated by Trends in Basic Environmental Indicators," a contribution to the WWF-International/HIID Project: Structural Adjustment and the Environment (CENDES/UCV: Caracas, 1994). South of the Orinoco, the San Francisco woodland lot has been nearly completely deforested. See J.C. Centeno, "Deforestación fuera de control en Venezuela," unpublished paper available on the Internet, http://www.ciens.ula.ve/~jcenteno/DEFOR-ES.html. According to Centeno (1995, p. 28) approximately one third of the area under concession is destroyed or severely degraded from forest management practices. Thus, the remaining forest reserves and woodland lots under concession were characterized as degraded by using the following formula: N x(Yx 4,000) x 1/3= Area Degraded (ha); where N= number of concessions, Y= years in operation, and 4,000 represents the average yearly area on which each concessionaire operates. No estimate for the amount of hectares impacted by mining was included because of a lack of data.

68 C.J. Sharpe et al., "The Effects of Structural Adjustment on the Venezuelan Environment as Illustrated by Trends in Basic Environmental Indicators," a contribution to the WWF-International/HIID Project: Structural Adjustment and the Environment (CENDES/UCV: Caracas, 1994); J.C. Centeno, "Deforestación fuera de control en Venezuela," unpublished paper available on the Internet, http://www.ciens.ula.ve/~jcenteno/DEFOR-ES.html

69 U.S. Geological Survey/Tecmin, Geology and Mineral Resource Assessment of the Venezuelan Guayana Shield, Survey Bulletin 2062 (USGS/Corporación Venezolana de Guayana: Denver, CO, 1993),p. 91.

70 Specifically, the analysis states: "The extensive permissive area and the wide range of placer gold grades and tonnages make it difficult to estimate the potential number of undiscovered deposits, but their number and the amount of probable contained gold are thought to be significant." G.J. Orris, "Placer Gold" in U.S. Geological Survey/Tecmin, Geology and Mineral Resource Assessment of the Venezuelan Guayana Shield, Survey Bulletin 2062 (USGS/Corporación Venezolana de Guayana: Denver, CO, 1993), p. 86.

71 Wall Street Journal, "Construction of Gold Mine in Venezuela is Launched" (August 4,1997),

72 Estimates of the number of illegal miners vary widely. Higher estimates generally come from the Ministry of Energy and Mines, which claims up to 100,000 miners are not currently paying royalties on material they extract. See W. Franco et al., "La situación actual de la reserva forestal Imataca y propuestas para orientar su ordenamiento," (Ministry of Energy and Mines: Caracas, 1997). A lower projection of under 20,000 miners was given by Electrificación del Caroní (EDELCA). See Alexandre Barreto and Sylvia Pérez-Puelles, "Estudio integral de la actividad minera en la cuenca hidrográfica del Alto Caroní" (II Jornadas Profesionales de EDELCA, Oct. 199D.

73 The number fluctuates, depending in part on Brazil's enforcement of indigenous territories. Recent reports estimate that there are now 3,000-4,000 Brazilian miners in Amazonas. See Oficina de Derechos Humanos del Vicariato Apostólico, "Situación de los derechos humanos en el estado Amazonas," Informe Anual (Puerto Ayacucho, 1996); See also, Alexandre Barreto and Sylvia Pérez-Puelles, "Estudio integral de la actividad minera en la cuenca hidrográfica del Alto Caroní," (II Jornadas Profesionales de EDELCA, Oct. 199D; Gen. León Orsoni, personal communication, Puerto Ordaz, April 1997.

74 W. Franco et al., "La situación actual de la reserva forestal Imataca y propuestas para orientar su ordenamiento," (Ministry of Energy and Mines: Caracas, 1997), p. 40.

75 D. Mason, personal communication, Washington, DC, August 20,1997.

76 For a more detailed explanation of these pieces of equipment, see M. Priester and T Hentschel, Small-Scale Gold-Mining: Processing Techniques in Developing Countries (Vieweg: Germany, 1992); E.H. Dahlberg, Small-Scale Gold Mining: A Manual Based on Experience in Suriname (Intermediate Technology Publications: London, reprinted 1986); W. Franco et al., "La situación actual en la reserva forestal Imataca y propuestas para orientar su ordenamiento," (Ministry of Energy and Mines: Caracas, 1997); A. Sartorio de Ponte, "La explotación de oro y diamantes: estado Bolívar, cuenca alta del río Caroní, Venezuela," unpublished report (AVVA/Coalición Orinoquía: Caracas, April 1997).

77 B. Müller, "Esto es mi ambiente, aquí tengo vida: la colonización de los bosques del estado Bolívar (Venezuela) por los buscadores de oro y diamantes en el contexto del desarrollo regional," paper presented to Small-Scale Mining Workshop, Puerto Ordaz, Bolívar, September, 1997.

78 B. Müller, "Esto es mi ambiente, aquí tengo vida: la colonización de los bosques del estado Bolívar (Venezuela) por los buscadores de oro y diamantes en el contexto del desarrollo regional," paper presented to Small-Scale Mining Workshop, Puerto Ordaz, Bolívar, September, 1997.

79 Severely degraded areas were cited in W. Franco et al., "La situación actual de la reserva forestal Imataca y propuestas para orientar su ordenamiento," (Ministry of Energy and Mines: Caracas, 1997). However, little is known regarding the regeneration of forests in the region.

80 A. Barreto and S. Pérez-Puelles, "Estudio integral de la actividad minera en la cuenca hidrográfica del Alto Caroní," (II Jornadas Profesionales de EDELCA, 199D, p. 18.

81 A. Barreto and S. Pérez-Puelles, "Estudio integral de la actividad minera en la cuenca hidrográfica del Alto Caroní," (II Jornadas Profesionales de EDELCA, 1991), p. 15.

82 J. N. Hutcheson, "U.S. Officials Combat Mercury Threat," Reuters News Service. (Jan. 30,1998).

83 M.M. Veiga and J.A. Meech, "Gold Mining Activities in the Amazon: Clean-up Techniques and Remedial Procedures for Mercury Pollution," Ambio (vol. 24(6): Sept. 1995); O. Malm et al., "Mercury Pollution Due to Gold Mining in the Madeira River Basin, Brazil," Ambio (vol. 13(1): February 1990), pp. 11-15; A. S. de Ponte, "La explotación de oro y diamantes: estado Bolívar, cuenca alta del río Caroní," unpublished paper (AVVA/Coalición Orinoquía: April, 1997).

84 J. Nriagu et al., "Mercury Pollution in Brazil," Nature (vol. 356: April 2,1992), p. 389.

85 R.F. Stallard, "Gold Mining in the Guayana Shield of Venezuela: An Examination of Dispersal Processes and Mercury in Living Landscapes," in The International Association of Geomorphologists Southeast Asia Conference, programme with abstracts (IAG: 1995), p. 73.

86 O. Malm et al., "Mercury Pollution Due to Gold Mining in the Madeira River Basin, Brazil," Ambio (vol. 13(1): February 1990),pp. 11-15.

87 Litos, C.A., "Contaminación mercurial del Bajo Caroní," informe de avance, August, 1989.

88 A. Perozo and H. Moreno, "Escenario antropológico de la pequeña minería: la tradición tecnológica," Pantepui(no. 5: 1993).

89 C. Sharpe, ECONATURA, personal communication, January 30,1998.

90 InterPress Service, "Indígenas; la malaria mata yanomamis en Venezuela" (Interpress Third World News Agency, October 15,1996).

91 G. MacMillan, At the End of the Rainbow?; Gold, Land, and People in the Brazilian Amazon (Columbia University Press: New York, 1995).

92 Campaña contra la impunidad de la masacre yanomami, "A un Año de Haximú," La era agrícola (1994), p. 45.

93 Marcus Colchester, Forest Peoples Programme, personal communication, December 24,1997.

94 A. Coghlan, "Cleaner Gold Improves Miners' Prospects," New Scientist (April 6, 1996), p. 11; A. Coghlan, "Midas Touch Could End Amazon's Pollution," New Scientist (June 27,1997), p. 10.

95 W.H. Dennen, Mineral Resources: Geology, Exploration, and Development, (Taylor and Francis; New York, 1989), p. 121.

96 A. Smith and T. Mudder, "The Environmental Geochemistry of Cyanide," in G.S. Plumlee and M.H. Logsdon (eds), vol. 6, Society of Economic Geologists. 1993.

97 J.S. Scott and J.C. Ingles, "Removal of Cyanide from Gold Mill Effluents," in Proceedings of Canadian Mineral Processors Thirteenth Annual Meeting, Ottawa, Canada, Jan. 20-22,1981.

98 C. D. Da Rosa, Golden Dreams, Poisoned Streams: How Reckless Mining Pollutes America's Waters, and How We Can Stop it (Mineral Policy Center: Washington, DC, 1997, pp. 48-49).

99 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Compliance, Profile of the Metal Mining Industry, Sector Notebook Project (EPA: Washington, 1995),p. 29.

100 U.S. Geological Survey/Tecmin, Geology and Mineral Resource Assessment of the Venezuelan Guayana Shield, Survey Bulletin 2062 (USGS/Corporación Venezolana de Guayana: Denver, CO, 1993), p.91.

101 See EPA's lists of wastes released from mining operations, many of which indicate tailings leaks, in EPA Office of Compliance, Profile of the Metal Mining Industry, Sector Notebook Project (EPA: Washington, 1995), pp. 40-45.

102 R.L.P. Kleinman, "Acid Mine Drainage: U.S. Bureau of Mines Researches and Develops Control Methods for Both Coal and Metal Mines," Engineering and Mining Journal (July 1989); B.A. Reece, "Acid Mine Drainage: Perpetual Polution," Forum, Clementine (Mineral Policy Center: Washington, DC, Winter 1995).

103 U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, "Acid Drainage from Mines on the National Forests: A Management Challenge," (USDA: Washington, DC), p. 3.

104 G.B. Sidder, "Mineral Deposits of the Venezuelan Guayana Shield," in U.S. Geological Survey, Geology and Mineral Deposits of the Venezuelan Guayana Shield, Bulletin 2124 (USGS: Washington, DC, 1995).

105 Colorado Department of Natural Resources, "Guidelines for the Characterization, Monitoring, Reclamation and Closure of Cyanide Leaching Projects," draft, in press (Colorado Division of Mines and Geology: Denver CO, Nov 1997); J.S. Scott and J.C. Ingles "Removal of Cyanide from Gold Mill Effluents," in Proceedings of Canadian Mineral Processors Thirteenth Annual Meeting, Ottawa, Canada, Jan 20-22,1981.

106 Placer Dome, "Las Cristinas Project Summary" unpublished company document (Caracas, 1996).

107 C.D. Da Rosa, Golden Dreams, Poisoned Streams: How Reckless Mining Pollutes America's Waters, and How We Can Stop it (Mineral Policy Center: Washington, DC, 1997).

108 Coordinadora de las Organizaciones Indígenas de la Cuenca Amazónica (COICA), "Canadian Companies Active in Countries with Territory in the Amazon Basin," unpublished report, 1994, p. 50.

109 PROVEA, Situación de los derechos humanos en Venezuela, annual report (PROVEA: Caracas, October 1996).

110 "Environmental Impacts from Mining Raised in Conflict Between Huge Firms, Local Miners," International Environment Reporter (Bureau of National Affairs: Washington, DC, February 19,1997).

111 Whitehorse Mining Initiative Leadership Council Accord, "Whitehorse Mining Initiative," final report, 1994, available from Mining Association of Canada web page, http://www.nrcan.gc.ca/ms/sdev/wmie.htm.

112 A. Young, British Colombia Mining Watch, personal communication, January 29,1998.

113 GOV "Un proyecto de País; Venezuela en consenso," documentos del IX Plan de la Nación (Oficina Central de Coordinación y Planificación: Caracas, 1994); GOV "Agenda Venezuela: lineamientos para un programa de estabilización y cambio estructural orientado al crecimiento y la solidaridad," (Ministerio de Hacienda: Caracas, 1996).

114 Coordinadora de las Organizaciones Indígenas de la Cuenca Amazónica (COICA), "Canadian Companies Active in Countries with Territory in the Amazon Basin," unpublished report, 1994.

115 Placer Dome Internet site: http://www.placerdome.com.

116 Broken Hill Proprietary Company, Ltd., "BHP Environmental Report 1997, " (BHP: Melbourne, Australia, 1997), p. 8.

117 See J. Friedland, "Mining Boom Returns to Bolivia, but Local Benefits are in Doubt," Wall Street Journal (February 3, 1998), p. A18.

118 Placer Dome, Inc., A Year of Contrasts: Growth and Challenge, annual report, Vancouver, BC, 1996.

119 Broken Hill Proprietary Company, Ltd., "BHP Environmental Report 1997," (BHP: Melbourne, Australia, 1997), p. 31.

120 C. Da Rosa and J.S. Lyon, Golden Dreams, Poisoned Streams: How Reckless Mining Pollutes America's Rivers and How We Can Stop it (Mineral Policy Center: Washington, DC, 1997),

121 Broken Hill Proprietary Company, Ltd., "BHP Environmental Report 1997," (BHP: Melbourne, Australia, 1997), p. 13.

122 Mineral Policy Center, "States Rights, Miners Wrongs: Case Studies in Regulatory Failure, "(July 1994).

123 See W. Green, "Mining the Suckers," Forbes Magazine, February 10,1997.

124 Figures for the size of the reserve differ. Decree 1850 refers to the forest reserve as an area of 3.6 million hectares, while the ministerial resolution creating the reserve (no, 15) refers to an area of 3.2 million hectares.

125 W. Franco et al., "La situación actual de la reserva forestal Imataca y propuestas para orientar su ordenamiento," (Ministry of Energy and Mines: Caracas, 1997).

126 GOV Decree 375 (Gaceta Oficial, no. 27,802: Caracas, Aug. 3,1965).

127 The number of concessions and contracts varies depending on the report, and appears to be between 300 and 400. See Comisión Permanente de Energía y Minas de la Cámara de Diputados, "Informe de la Comisión Permanente de Energía y Minas sobre el cuestionario minero en relación con los contratos y concesiones mineras otorgados en la reserva forestal de Imataca," (Caracas, 1997).

128 GOV "Decreto 1850; Plan de Ordenamiento y Reglamento de Uso de la Reserva Forestal Imataca," (Gaceta Oficial: Caracas, Venezuela, May 28,1997).

129 "Decreto 1850 es ilegal," El Universal (Caracas, 30 June 1997).

130 V. Davies, "Indígenas pemones vinieron a Caracas a rechazar apertura minera en Imataca," El Nacional (Caracas, June 25,1997).

131 O. Huber, "Mapa de la vegetación de la Guayana venezolana (1:2,000,000). (Edición Tamanduá: Caracas, 1995).

132 L. Hernández et al., "Consideraciones sobre el plan de ordenamiento y reglamento de uso de la reserva forestal Imataca," report written for the Environment Commission of the House of Deputies (Caracas, July 1997).

133 Modern conservation biology has shown that connecting protected areas is critical for maintaining biodiversity and minimizing habitat fragmentation. See, C.I. Shafer, Nature Reserves: Island Theory and Conservation Practice (Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1990).

134 GOV "Decreto 22l4, " (Gaceta Oficial: Caracas, 23 April, 1992), Article 5.

135 M. Colchester, Forest Politics in Suriname (International Books: Utrecht, 1995), pp. 48-50; Organization of American States, "Natural Resources, Foreign Concessions and Land Rights: A report on the village of Nieuw Koffiekamp," (Special Mission to Suriname, Unit for the Promotion of Democracy, General Secretariat, Washington, DC, 1997).

136 M.A. Hill and A.J. Press, "Kakadu National Park: An Australian Experience in Co-management" in D. Western and R.M. Wright (eds.), Natural Connections: Perspectives in Community-based Conservation (Island Press: Washington, DC, 1994).

137 Saul Hudson, "Monarch Group: Going Beneath the Surface," Daily Journal (Sept. 30,1994).

138 W. Franco et al., "La situación actual de la reserva forestal Imataca y propuestas para orientar su ordenamiento," (Ministry of Energy and Mines: Caracas, 1997).

139 J. Ochoa G., "Diseño de un sistema de corredores de vida silvestre en bosques productores de maderas de la Guayana venezolana," in A. Vega (éd.), Conservation Corridors in the Central American Region (Gainesville, FL: Tropical Research and Development, Inc., 1993).

140 At least 10 percent of each of these parks and monuments is forested.

141 O. Huber, "Mapa de la vegetación de la Guayana venezolana (1:2,000,000)," (Edición Tamanduá: Caracas, 1995).

142 R. Costanza et al., "The Value of the World's Ecosystem Services and Natural Capital," Nature (vol. 387: May 1997).

143 P. Gutman, personal communication, based on forthcoming paper.

144 P. Gutman, personal communication, based on forthcoming paper.

145 World Bank, "How to Recover Part of the Benefits of Biodiversity Protection to Finance INPARQUES' Current Costs," unpublished World Bank paper, Washington, DC, undated).

146 Decree 276, "Reglamento Parcial de la Ley Orgánica para la Ordenación del Territorio Sobre Administración y Manejo de Parques Nacionales y Monumentos Naturales," (Government of Venezuela, 9 June 1989, Article 12).

147 GOV "Ley Orgánica para La Ordenación del Territorio," (Gaceta Oficial No. 3238 Extraordinaria: Caracas, 8/11/83).

148 INPARQUES, "Sistema de Parques Nacionales," unpublished data, 1996.

149 E. Sulbaran, Sistema de parques nacionales y monumentos naturales de Venezuela: criterios para su consolidación en una nueva realidad nacional, graduate paper, (Universidad de Los Andes: Mérida, 1995).

150 Mariapia Bevilacqua, Asociación Venezolana para la Conservación de Areas Naturales (ACOANA), personal communication, January 10,1998.

151 While 86 percent of national parks and 30 percent of natural monuments have some personnel, there is a vacancy of park guards of nearly 50 percent, and a deficit of nearly 60 percent of guard vigilance posts. See E. Sulbaran, Sistema de parques nacionales y monumentos naturales de Venezuela: criterios para su consolidación en una nueva realidad nacional, graduate paper (Universidad de Los Andes: Mérida, 1995).

152 World Conservation Union (IUCN), Guidelines for Protected Areas Management Categories (IUCN: Cambridge, UK, and Gland, Switzerland, 1994).

153 C. Sharpe, ECONATURA, personal communication, January 30,1998.

154 MARNR and ILDIS, "Planificación, administración y manejo de áreas naturales protegidas," final report, Caracas.

155 C. Sharpe, "The Effects of Structural Adjustment on the Venezuelan National Parks System," a Contribution to the WWF-International/HIID Project: Structural Adjustment and the Environment." (CENDES/UCV: Caracas, 1994); C. Sharpe, "Efectos de la macroeconomía sobre el sistema nacional de parques de Venezuela," first Latin American Congress on National Parks and Protected Areas, Santa Marta, Colombia, 1997.

156 O. Huber, ''Conservation of the Venezuelan Guayana," in P. Berry et al. (eds.), Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana, vol. I (Missouri Botanical Garden, Timber Press, Inc: Portland, Oregon, 1995), p. 200.

157 O. Huber, "Conservation of the Venezuelan Guayana," in P. Berry et al. (eds.), Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana, vol. I (Missouri Botanical Garden, Timber Press, Inc: Portland, Oregon, 1995), p. 214.

158 D. R. Silva, "Informe de la situación actual de la actividad minera ilegal en el parque nacional Yapacana," unpublished report, (SADA-AMAZONAS/MARNR, 1995), p. 7; PROVEA, Situación de los derechos humanos en Venezuela: informe anual, octubre de 1995 septiembre de 1996 (Programa Venezolano de Educación-Acción en Derechos Humanos: Caracas, Venezuela, 1996),p. 24l.

159 Senate Environment Commission, "Minería dentro de las áreas protegidas del estado Bolívar y Caso Friedland," (Senate Environment Commission: Caracas, 1993), P. 5.

160 Letter from Minister of Environment to Senator Lucía Antillano, 1/23/96, no. 89.

161 EDELCA, "Documento de intención: sistema de transmisión eléctrica del sur del estado Bolívar," (CVG/EDELCA: Caracas, February 1997).

162 INFORECO/EDELCA, "Estudio de impacto ambiental," (EDELCA: Ciudad Bolívar, June 1997).

163 O. Huber, personal communication, February 19,1998.

164 E. Yerena and L. Escalona, "Guatapo National Park: Relocation of Settlers in the Interest of Public Utility," in S. Amend and T. Amend (eds.), National Parks without People?: The South American Experience (World Conservation Union-IUCN/parques nacionales y conservación ambiental: Quito, Ecuador, 1995), p. 409-416.

165 M. Gabaldón, "Inhabitants in Venezuelan National Parks: Policies and Management," in: S. Amend and T. Amend (eds.), National Parks without People?: The South American Experience. (IUCN/parques nacionales y conservación ambiental; Quito, Ecuador, 1995), p. 409-416.

166 GOV, "Decreto 276: Reglamento Parcial de la Ley Orgánica para la Ordenación del Territorio sobre Administración y Manejo de Parques Nacionales y Monumentos Naturales," (Caracas, June 9,1989, Chapter 9, article 36).

167 A. Mansutti Rodríguez and N. Silva, "Rohstoffabbau und indigener Voelker in der Provinz Guayana, Venezuela," in Wirstchaftliche, Soziale und Kulturelle Rechte Indigener Voelker: Praevention Gegenueber Sozialen und Oekologischen Schaden der Ressourcenausbeutug Entwisklungsperpektiven (GHK 59-60: Kassel, 1996), pp. 205-216.

168 M. Melnyk, "The Direct-Use Values of Tropical Moist Forest Foods: A Case Study of the Huottuja (Piaroa) Amerindians of Venezuela" Ambio (vol. 26(7): November 1997).

169 PROVEA, Situación de los derechos humanos en Venezuela: informe anual, octubre de 1995-septiembre de 1996 (Programa Venezolano de Educación-Acción en Derechos Humanos; Caracas, 1996),p. 212.

170 A. Mansutti Rodríguez, "Una mirada al futuro de los indígenas de guayana," Boletín Antropológico (Centro De Investigaciones del Museo Arqueológico: Mérida, no. 29, September-December 1993).

171 GOV, "Constitución de la República de Venezuela" (Gaceta Oficial no. 3357 Extraordinario, 8/12/83).

172 GOV, "Ley de Reforma Agraria" (Gaceta Oficial no. 611 Extraordinario, 3/19/60, article 2).

173 M. Colchester, "Conservation Politics: The Upper Orinoco-Casiquiare Biosphere Reserve," case study prepared for the International Work Group on Indigenous Affairs and the Forest Peoples Programme for the Conference on Indigenous Rights and Nature Conservation, March 1997, Pucallpa, Peru.

174 GOV, "Ley Aprobatoria del Convenio 107 relativo a la Protección e Integración de las Poblaciones Indígenas y de otras Poblaciones Tribales y Semitribales en los Países Independientes" (Gaceta Oficial no. 3235 Extraordinario, 8/3/83); M. Colchester, Venezuela: Violations of Indigenous Rights (World Rainforest Movement: London, 1995).

175 M. Colchester, Venezuela: Violations of Indigenous Rights (World Rainforest Movement: London, 1995).

176 Instituto Socioambiental, Aconteceu: Povos Indigenas no Brasil (ISA: Brasilia, Oct. 3,1996).

177 PROVEA, Situación de los derechos humanos en Venezuela: Informe Anual (PROVEA, Caracas, October 1996).

178 J. Ojasti, "Consumo de fauna por una comunidad de indígenas en el estado Bolívar, Venezuela," Simposio Conservación y Manejo de Fauna Silvestre Neotropical (IX Claz: urna, Perú p. 45, 1990.)

179 M. Melnyk, "Productos comestibles: una oportunidad para el desarrollo sustentable," in A. Carrillo and M.A. Perera, Amazonas, modernidad en tradición (SADA-Amazonas, ORPIA, CAIAH, GTZ: Caracas, 1995.)

180 M. Colchester, "Sustentabilidad y toma de decisiones en la Amazonas venezolana: los yanomamis en la reserva de la Biosfera del Alto-Orinoco-Casiquiare," in A. Carrillo and M.A. Perera, Amazonas, modernidad en tradición (SADA-Amazonas, ORPIA, CAIAH, GTZ: Caracas, 1995).

181 L. Hernández et al., "Nombres indígenas y usos de algunas plantas de bosques de la Gran Sabana (Venezuela): una introducción a la etnobotánica regional," Acta Botánica Venezolana (17; 1,2,3 and 4:69-127,1994).

182 Between 1982 and 1992, population growth among the indigenous peoples of Amazonas reached 47.5% and 60% among the indigenous peoples of Bolívar state, See A. Mansutti Rodríguez, "Una mirada al futuro de los indígenas de guayana," Boletín Antropológico (Centro de Investigaciones del Museo Arqueológico, no 29: September-December 1993), p. 23. See also, A. Mansutti Rodríguez, "Demografía, ocupación del espacio y desarrollo sustentable entre los piaroas del estado Amazonas," in A. Carrillo and M.A. Perera, Amazonas, modernidad en tradición (SADA-Amazonas, ORPIA, CAIAH, GTZ: Caracas, 1995).

183 M. Melnyk, "The Effects of Sedentarization on Agriculture and Forest Resources in Southern Venezuela," network paper 16b, (Rural Development Forestry Network: Winter 1993).

184 S. Gorzula, "Diagnóstico faunístico del estado Amazonas: propuesta para su manejo sustentable," in A. Carrillo and M.A. Perera, Amazonas, modernidad en tradición (SADA-Amazonas, ORPIA, CAIAH, GTZ: Caracas, 1995).

185 EcoNatura, "Taller de evaluación de la problemática actual del parque nacional Canaima, realizado con líderes y maestros pemones," proceedings report, (Kavanayen, Parque Nacional Canaima: 20-21 April, 1996).

186 M. Melnyk, "The Effects of Sedentarization on Agriculture and Forest Resources in Southern Venezuela," network paper l6b, (Rural Development Forestry Network: Winter 1993).

187 O. Huber, "Conservation of the Venezuelan Guayana," in P. Berry et al. (eds.), Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana, vol 1: Introduction. (Missouri Botanical Garden: St. Louis, 1995), p. 212.

188 M. Melnyk, "Indigenous Enterprise for the Domestication of Trees and the Commercialization of the Fruits," paper presented at the International Conference on Domestication and Commercialization of Non-Timber Forest Products in Agroforestry Systems, (International Centre for Research on Agroforestry: Nairobi, February, 1996).

189 O. Huber, "Conservation of the Venezuelan Guayana," in P. Berry et al. (eds.), Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana, vol 1: Introduction. (Missouri Botanical Garden: St. Louis, 1995, p. 215).

190 M. Melnyk, "Indigenous Enterprise for the Domestication of Trees and the Commercialization of the Fruits," paper presented at the International Conference on Domestication and Commercialization of Non-Timber Forest Products in Agroforestry Systems, (International Centre for Research on Agroforestry: Nairobi, February, 1996).

191 See M. Melnyk, "Indigenous Enterprise for the Domestication of Trees and the Commercialization of the Fruits," paper presented at the International Conference on Domestication and Commercialization of Non-Timber Forest Products in Agroforestry Systems, (International Centre for Research on Agroforestry: Nairobi, February 1996); A. Mansutti Rodríguez, "Demografía, ocupación del espacio y desarrollo sustentable entre los piaroas del estado Amazonas," in A. Carrillo and M.A. Perera, Amazonas, modernidad en tradición (SADA-Amazonas, ORPIA, CAIAH, GTZ: Caracas, 1995).

192 See M. Melnyk, "Indigenous Enterprise for the Domestication of Trees and the Commercialization of the Fruits," paper presented at the International Conference on Domestication and Commercialization of Non-Timber Forest Products in Agroforestry Systems, (International Centre for Research on Agroforestry: Nairobi, February 1996); A. Mansutti Rodríguez, "Demografía, ocupación del espacio y desarrollo sustentable entre los piaroas del estado Amazonas," in A. Carrillo and M.A. Perera, Amazonas, modernidad en tradición (SADA-Amazonas, ORPIA, CAIAH, GTZ: Caracas, 1995).

193 S. Mori, "The Brazil Nut Industry-Past, Present, and Future," in M. Plotkin and L. Famolare (eds,), Sustainable Harvest and Marketing of Rain Forest Products (Island Press: Washington DC, 1992), p. 246.

194 O. Huber, "Conservation of the Venezuelan Guayana," in P. Berry et al. (eds.), Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana, vol 1: Introduction. (Missouri Botanical Garden: St. Louis, 1995), p. 215.

195 PROVEA, Situación de los derechos humanos en Venezuela: informe anual, Octubre de 1995-Septiembre de 1996 (Programa Venezolano de Educación-Acción en Derechos Humanos: Caracas, 1996), p. 2l6.

196 M. Colchester, Venezuela: Violation of Indigenous Rights: Report to the International Labour Office on the Observation of ILO Convention 107 (World Rainforest Movement: London, 1995), p. 31; PROVEA, Situación de los derechos humanos en Venezuela; informe anual, octubre de 1995-septiembre de 1996 (Programa Venezolano de Educación-Acción en Derechos Humanos: Caracas, Venezuela, 1996), p. 2l6.

197 J.C. Centeno, Estrategia para el desarrollo forestal de Venezuela, unpublished paper, 1995, pp. 23-24.

198 GOV, "Ley de Timbre Fiscal" (Gaceta Oficial, No. 4727 Extraordinario, 5/27/94).

199 Includes all royalties, area fees, and the transportation fee (guía de movilización verde). The average market price of roundwood is $158 per cubic meter. See J.C. Centeno, Estrategia para el desarrollo forestal de Venezuela, unpublished paper, 1995, pp. 25, 28.

200 J.C. Centeno, Estrategia para el desarrollo forestal de Venezuela, unpublished paper, 1995, p. 29.

201 J.C. Centeno, "Deforestación fuera de control en Venezuela," unpublished paper, available on the Internet: http://www.ciens.ula.ve/~jcenteno/DEFO R-ES.html.

202 See GOV, "Ley de Timbre Fiscal" (Gaceta Oficial, no. 4727 Extraordinario, 5/27/94, chapter VI).

203 J.C. Centeno, Estrategia para el desarrollo forestal de Venezuela, unpublished paper, 1995, p. 26.

204 W. Franco et al., "La situación actual de la reserva forestal Imataca y propuestas para orientar su ordenamiento" (Ministry of Energy and Mines: Caracas, 1997), p. 24.

205 J. Lozada and J. Ochoa G., "Aspectos ambientales del manejo forestal en Venezuela: situación actual y perspectivas," paper presented at Jornadas sobre desarrollo sostenible del medio rural: En busca del mejor camino, Caracas, November 1996.

206 Normal income taxes for mineral rich countries average between 30-40% of net income and royalties are usually between 1-3%. See Government/Industry Task Force on the Canadian Mineral Investment Climate, International Task Reference Charts for the Mining Industry: Background Study on Mineral Taxation Concerns (Intergovernmental Working Group on the Mineral Industry: Vancouver, 1993).

207 Placer Dome, "Las Cristinas: Project Summary" September, 1997.

208 W. Franco et al., "La situación actual de la reserva forestal Imataca y propuestas para orientar su ordenamiento," (Ministry of Energy and Mines: Caracas, 1997), p. 28.

209 Fundación Terramar, "Estimación del area afectada por la explotación minera aurífera," unpublished document, October 1996.

210 B. Müller, "Esto es mi ambiente, aquí tengo vida: la colonización de los bosques del estado Bolívar (Venezuela) por los buscadores de oro y diamantes en el contexto del desarrollo regional," paper presented to small-scale mining workshop (Puerto Ordaz, Bolivar, September, 1997).

211 International Environment Reporter, "Environmental Impacts from Mining Raised in Conflict Between Huge Firms, Local Miners," Bureau of National Affairs (Washington, DC, Feb. 19,1997).

212 Considering that Venezuela is not likely to have a strong mining supply industry a reasonable estimate for indirect jobs created locally as a result of mining (multiplier effect) would be approximately 3-4 per mining job created. Gary MacMahon, Consultant, World Bank, personal communication, January 21,1998.

213 U.S. Geological Survey, Geology and Mineral Resource Assessment of the Venezuelan Guayana Shield, Survey Bulletin 2062, Washington, DC, 1993.

214 World Bank, "How To Recover Part of the Benefits of Biodiversity Protection to Finance INPARQUES' Current Costs," unpublished document, Washington, DC, 1996.

215 The implementation of these fees on the eastern sector has been difficult, partly because the road on which park visitors travel is a regional highway. Iokine Rodríguez, EcoNatura, personal communication, February 14, 1998.

216 INPARQUES, "Cuadro de tarifas" Dirección General Sectorial de Parques Nacionales, Dirección de Divulgación e Interpretación de la Naturaleza, unpublished data, Caracas, April, 1997.

217 L. Mercado, "Economic Valuation and Funding Mechanisms for Protected Areas: A Venezuelan Case Study" (project report for Graduate Program, Cornell University, 1996), p. 25.

218 Lisa Chase, "National Park Entrance Fees in Costa Rica: Results of a Survey on the Fee Increase for Foreign Tourists," (Ithaca, NY: Department of Agricultural, Resource, and Managerial Economics, Cornell University, unpublished manuscript, 1995). See also Jan Laarman and Hans Gregerson, "Pricing Policy in Nature-Based Tourism," in Tourism Management (1996).

219 E. Boo, Ecotourism: The Potentials and Pitfalls (World Wildlife Fund-U.S.: Washington, DC. 1990), p. 46.

220 E. Boo, Ecotourism: The Potentials and Pitfalls (World Wildlife Fund-U.S.: Washington, DC, 1990), p. 44.

221 As of April 1997, an excursion package for one weekend in Archipiélago de Los Roques was approximately $300, not including the park entrance fee. A similar package for Canaima cost approximately $500.

222 L. Mercado, "Economic Valuation and Funding Mechanisms for Protected Areas: A Venezuelan Case Study" (project report for Graduate Program, Cornell University, 1996), p. 109.

223 For examples of innovative financing mechanisms for biodiversity, see I.A. Bowles et al., Encouraging Private Sector Support for Biodiversity Conservation (Conservation International: Washington, DC, 1996); D. dark and D. Downes, What Price Biodiversity?: Economic Incentives and Biodiversity Conservation in the United States (CIEL: Washington, DC, 1995); J.A. McNeely and W.P. Weatherby, "Innovative Funding to Support Biodiversity Conservation" International Journal of Social Economics (vol. 23:4,5,6,1996)

224 E. O'Hallaran and V Ferrer, "The Evolution of Cameroon's New Forestry Legal, Regulatory and Taxation System," draft paper (World Bank: Washington, DC, January 1997).

225 United Nations, "Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change," Article 12.

226 For guidelines on establishing a monitoring system, see A.B. Rosenfeld et al., Reinventing the Well: Approaches to Minimizing the Environmental and Social Impact of Oil Development in the Tropics (Washington, DC: Conservation International, 1997).

227 For guidelines on establishing a monitoring system, see A.B. Rosenfeld et al., Reinventing the Well: Approaches to Minimizing the Environmental and Social Impact of Oil Development in the Tropics (Washington, DC: Conservation International, 1997).

228 For a more in-depth discussion on extractive reserves in Brazil, see J. R. Murrieta and R. Pinzón, Extractive Reserves (IUCN Forest Conservation Programme; Gland, Switzerland, 1995).

229 Fergus McKay, Forest Peoples Programme, World Rainforest Movement, personal communication, October 30, 1997.

230 M.A. Hill and A.J. Press, "Kakadu National Park: An Australian Experience in Co-management" in D. Western and R.M. Wright (eds.), Natural Connections: Perspectives in Community-based Conservation (Island Press: Washington, DC, 1994).

231 For examples of ecosystem or bioregional planning see, K.R. Miller, Balancing the Scales: Guidelines for Increasing Biodiversity's Chances Through Bioregional Management (World Resources Institute: Washington, DC, 1996).

232 See K.R. Miller, Balancing the Scales: Guidelines for Increasing Biodiversity's Chances Through Bioregional Management (world Resources Institute: Washington, DC, 1996); U.S. Department of Agriculture/Forest Service, "Ecosystem Management: A National Framework" (USDA: Washington, DC, 1994).

233 El Universal, "EEUU recomienda procesos de participación y resolución de conflictos en Imataca," Caracas, January l6, 1998.

234 For a more detailed discussion of decentralization and capacity building, see K.R. Miller et al., "Decentralization and the Capacity to Manage Biodiversity," Issues and Ideas (World Resources Institute: Washington DC, 1997).