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close this bookBiogas Plants (GTZ, 1988)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentAcknowledgements
View the documentPreface
View the document0. Biogas as appropriate technology
View the document1. Benefits and costs of a biogas plant
Open this folder and view contents2. The dgestion process
Open this folder and view contents3. Biogas plants
Open this folder and view contents4. Scaling of biogas plants
Open this folder and view contents5. Design of biogas plants
Open this folder and view contents6. Biogas utilization
View the document7. Planning, design and construction
View the document8. Appendix
View the documentBibliography
View the documentList of figures

List of figures

Fig. 1: A fannyard biogas plant
Fig. 2: Feed material tables
Fig. 3: Simple biogas plants
Fig. 4: Fixed-dome plant
Fig. 5: Floating-drum plant
Fig. 6: Digester and gasholder
Fig. 7: Gas production from cattle manure
Fig. 8: Gas production from pig manure
Fig. 9: Graphic determination of gasholder volume (1)
Fig. 10: Graphic determination of gasholder volume (2)
Fig. 11: Digester/gasholder ratio
Fig. 12: Dependence of shape on retention time (floating-drum)
Fig. 13: Dependence of shape on retention time (fixed-dome)
Fig. 14: Biogas plants for a test programme
Fig. 15: Measuring gas production on the plant
Fig. 16: Shape and load-bearing capacity
Fig. 17: Same volume - different shape
Fig. 18: Pattern of stresses in a fixed-dome plant of mesonry construction .
Fig. 19: Cracks in the gas space of a fxed-dome plant
Fig. 20: The bottom slab
Fig. 21: Construction of a spherical shell from masonry
Fig. 22: Testing of mortar sand
Fig. 23: Mixing tank at inlet
Fig. 24: The inlet
Fig. 25: Path of the fermentation slurry in the digester
Fig. 26: Hemispherical plant with partition wall
Fig. 27: Stirring facilities in the digester
Fig. 28: Outlet (overflow) of a floating-drum plant
Fig. 29: The gas drum
Fig. 30: Forces on the gas drum
Fig. 31: Floating-drum guide frame
Fig. 32: Unsuitable guidance systems for floating-drums
Fig. 33: The water jacket
Fig. 34: Comparison of floating drums for waterjacket plants and for plants with internal gas outlet
Fig. 35: Correct height of compensating tank
Fig. 36: Shape of compensating tank
Fig. 37: Detail of a fixed-dome entry hatch
Fig. 38: Biogas: properties and utilization (tables)
Fig. 39: Pressure drop in gas pipes
Fig. 40: Condensate trap
Fig. 41: Diagram of a gas burner and a lamp
Fig. 42: Gas connection to diesel engine
Fig. 43: Drawing: floating-drum plant with funnel
Fig. 44: Drawing: floating-drum plant
Fig. 45: Drawing: floating-drum plant with an internal gas outlet and no water jacket
Fig. 46: Calculation of dimensions
Fig. 47: Drawing: floatingdrum plant with water jacket
Fig. 48: Drawing: fixed-dome plant without upper opening
Fig. 49: Drawing: fixed-dome plant with upper opening
Fig. 50: Drawing: floating-drum plant (vertical)
Fig. 51: Drawing: plant with extremely low VD/VG ratio
Fig. 52: Drawing: channel-type digester with folia
Fig. 53: Tables: Units of measurement
Fig. 54: Cubic metres and cubic feet; powers of ten
Fig. 55: Fundamental geometric formulae
Fig. 56: Fundamental static formulae
Fig. 57: Water pressure and earth pressure
Fig. 58: Change in volume of ideal gases under pressure and temperature
Fig. 59: Cross sections of common steels and pipes