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close this bookToxics and Health: - The Potential Long-Term Effects of Industrial Activity (WRI, 1994, 68 pages)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentForeword
View the documentAcknowledgments
View the documentIntroduction
Open this folder and view contentsI. Toxification of the Environment by Industrial Activity
Open this folder and view contentsII. Assessing the Scale of Industrial Releases
Open this folder and view contentsIII. Health Risks from Industrial Pollution
View the documentIV. Ecosystem Health
Open this folder and view contentsV. Toxic Legacy: Country Studies
View the documentVI. Transforming Industry
View the documentSummary
View the documentNotes
View the documentAppendix: - List of Attendees
View the documentOrder Form
View the documentThe 2050 Project

Notes

1. Rachel Carson, Silent Spring (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co. 1962: reissued in 1987).

2. World Resources Institute in collaboration with the United Nations Environment Programme and the United Nations Development Programme World Resources Report, 1994 - 95, World Resources Institute Oxford University Press, 1994. p. 213.

3. "Consensus Statement" in Chemically-Induced Alterations in Sexual Development: The Wildlife/Human Connection. T. Co-burn and C. Clement/ eds. (Princeton New Jersey: Princeton Scientific Publishing Co., Inc., 1992), pp. 1-8.

4. Robert Ayres Sandoz Professor of Environment and Management The European Institute of Business Administration Fountainbleau France (speaking at a workshop on "The Effects of Industrial Activity on Human and Ecosystem Health," May 19-21,1994, White Oak Plantation, Yulee, Florida).

5. Ibid.

6. F. Duchin and G. Lange The Future of the Environment: Ecological Economics and Technological Change (Oxford University Press New York, 1994).

7. World Resources Institute in collaboration with the United Nations Environment Programme and the United Nations Development Programme, World Resources 1992-93 (Oxford University Press/ New York, 1992), p. 206. [from WRR, 1994-95, p. 3]

8. U. Hoffmann and D. Zivkovic, "Demand Growth for Industrial Raw Materials and its Determinants: An Analysis for the Period 1965-1988," United Nations Conference on Trade and Development Discussion Paper No. 50, (Geneva : United Nations, November 1992) pp. 33-43. [from WRR, 1994-95 note 3, p. 25]

9. Op. cit. 3.

10. Op. cit. 3, p. 214.

11. Misch, Anne, "Assessing Environmental Health Risks," in State of the World 1994 (New York: Worldwatch Institute, 1994), p. 120.

12. Op. cit. 1.

13. Op. cit. 1.

14. William M. Stigliani, "Change in Valued ´Capacities' of Soil and Sediments as Indicators of Nonlinear and Time-Delayed Environmental Effects," Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, Vol. 10, No. 3 (1988), pp. 245-307.

15. William M Stigliani, Peter R. Jaffe, and Stefan Anderberg, "Heavy Metal Pollution in the Rhine Basin," Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 27, No. 5 (1993), pp. 790-792.

16. Cheryl Simon Silver, One Earth, One Future, Our Changing Global Environment (Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1990), p. 57.

17. Val Beasley, Associate Professor of Toxicology, The University of Illionois at Champaign-Urbana, Urbana, Illinois (speaking at a workshop on the "Effects of Industrial Activity on Human and Ecosystem Health," White Oak Plantation, Yulee, Florida, May 19-21,1994).

18. Op. cit. 3, p. 215.

19. Geraldo de Assis Guimarães, Professor Emeritus, Department of Organic Chemistry, Department of Anatomy, Universidade Federal do Pará, Brazil and Maria de Conceição Nascimento Pinheiro, (speaking at workshop on the "Effects of Industrial Activity on Human and Ecosystem Health," White Oak Plantation, Yulee, Florida, May 19-21,1994).

20. Op. cit. 5.

21. Op. cit. 5.

22. Op. cit. 5.

23. World Resources Institute, "Toxics in the Home," in The 1994 Information Please Environmental Almanac (New York: Houghton Mifflin Publishing Company, 1993), p. 53.

24. Op. cit. 12, p. 119.

25. Devra Davis, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health, Department of Health and Human Services (speaking at a workshop on the "Effects of Industrial Activity on Human and Ecosystem Health/' White Oak Plantation Yulee, Florida, May 19-21,1994.

26. Op. cit. 12.

27. Statement from the "Work Session on Environmentally Induced Alterations in Development: A Focus on Wildlife." (Wingspread Conference Center, Racine, Wisconsin, December 10-12,1993.) p. 2.

28. Op. cit. 12, p. 119.

29. Devra Lee Davis, et. al., "Medical Hypothesis: Xenoestrogens As Preventable Causes of Breast Cancer." Environmental Health Perspectives. Vol. 101, Number 5, October 1993, pp. 372-377.

30. Duchin, Faye, "Input-Output Analysis and Industrial Ecology," in The Greening of the Industrial Ecosystem. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. 1994. p. 61.

31. Faye Duchin, Director, Institute for Economic Analysis, New York University (speaking at a workshop on the "Effects of Industrial Activity on Human and Ecosystem Health," White Oak Plantation, Yulee, Florida, May 19-21,1994).

32. Op. cit. 31, p. 63.

33. Op. cit. 32.

34. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Screening Survey of Industrial Subtitle D Establishments (EPA, Washington, D.C., 1987), pp. 2-2 and C-8.

35. Robert U. Ayres, Sandoz Professor of Management and the Environment, The European Institute of Business Administration, France, 1993 (personal communication).

36. Op. cit. 3, Tables 23.1, 23.5, and 23.6.

37. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 1991 Toxics Release Inventory (Washington, D.C.: EPA, Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics, 1993), p. 15.

38. Robert U. Ayres and Leslie W. Ayres, "Use of Materials Balances to Estimate Aggregate Waste Generation in the U.S. (Excluding Chemicals)," The European Institute of Business Administration Working Paper Series (Fountainbleau, France: European Institute of Business Administration, June 1994. P. 1.

39. Ibid.

40. Ibid.

41. Robert U. Ayres and Leslie W. Ayres, "Chemical Industry Wastes: A Materials Balance Analysis The European Institute of Business Administration Working Paper Series (Fountainbleau, France: European Institute of Business Administration, June 1994) p. 2.

42. Ibid., p. 5.

43. Closing discussion at a workshop on the "Effects of Industrial Activity on Human and Ecosystem Health," White Oak Plantation, Yulee, Florida, May 19-21,1994.

44. Theo Colborn, Frederick S. Vom Saal, and Ana M. Soto, "Developmental Effects of Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals in Wildlife and Humans," Environmental Health Perspectives, (October 1993), Volume 101, Number 5: pp. 378-384.

45. Ibid., p. 379.

46. Ibid.

47. Op. cit. 4.

48. Op. cit. 4.

49. Janet Raloff, "The Gender Benders," by Janet Raloff. Science News, Vol. 145, No. 2, January 8,1994. p. 24-27.

50. Bette Hileman, "Environmental Estrogens Linked to Reproductive Abnormalities, Cancer," Chemical & Engineering News, Vol. 72, No. 5 (January 31,1994) p. 21.

51. Ibid. p. 21.

52. Op. cit. 45.

53. Statement from the "Work Session on Environmentally Induced Alterations in Development: A Focus on Wildlife." (Wingspread Conference Center, Racine, Wisconsin. December 10-12,1993.) p. 2.

54. Op. cit. 28.

55. Janet Raloff, "That Feminine Touch," Science News, Vol. 145, January 22,1994. p. 56-59.

56. Op. cit. 45.

57. Op. cit. 51.

58. Op. cit. 30.

59. Op. cit. 30.

60. Richard Stone, "Environmental Estrogens Stir Debate" Science, Vol. 265, No. 5170, (July 15,1994), pp. 308-310.

61. William K. Stevens, "Pesticides May Leave Legacy of Hormonal Chaos," The New York Times (August 23,1994), p. C1.

62. Op. cit. 12.

63. David G. Hoel, et al. "Trends in Cancer Mortality in 15 Industrialized Countries, 1969-1986," Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Vol. 84, No. 5, (March 4,1992), pp. 313-320.

64. Tim Beardsley, "A War Not Won," Scientific American, Vol. 270, No. 1 (January 1994), pp. 130-138.

65. Devra Lee Davis, Aaron Blair, and David G. Hoel, "Agricultural Exposures and Cancer Trends in Developed Countries," in Environmental Health Perspectives, World Resources Institute, Vol. 100, (1992), pp. 39-44.

66. Op. cit. 24.

67. Op. cit. 66.

68. Op. cit. 12, p 125.

69. Op. cit. 120.

70. Kaye H. Kilburn, "Evidence that the Human Nervous System is Most Sensitive to Environmental Toxins," Environmental Carcinogenesis Reviews - Part C of Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Vol. C8. No. 2 (1990-91), pp. 3217-336.

71. Ibid.

72. Op. cit. 12, p. 126.

73. Kaye H. Kilburn Ralph Edgington Professor of Medicine, University of Southern California School of Medicine, Los Angeles.

74. Kaye H. Kilburn and Raphael H. Warshaw, "Effects of Neurobehavioral Performance of Chronic Exposure to Chemically Contaminated Well Water," Toxicology and Industrial Health, Vol. 9, No. 3 (1993), pp. 391-404.

75. Ibid.

76. Kaye H. Kilburn and Raphael H. Warshaw, "Neurobehavioral Testing of Subjects Exposed Residentially to Ground-water Contaminated from an Aluminum Die-Casting Plant and Local Referents Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Vol. 39, pp. 483-96.

77. Kaye H. Kilburn, Ralph Edgington Professor of Medicine, University of Southern California School of Medicine Los Angeles October 12,1994 (personal communication).

78. Op. cit. 71.

79. Val Beasley, "Ecotoxicology and Ecosystem Health: Roles for Veterinarians; Goals of the Envirovet Program," Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, Vol. 203, No. 5, (September 1,1993), pp. 617-628.

80. Bruce A. Wilcox, "Industrial Pollution and Sustainability in an Economic Context," paper prepared for workshop on the "Effects of Industrial Activity on Human and Ecosystem Health," White Oak Plantation, Yulee, Florida, May 19-21, 1994.

81. Ibid.

82. Ibid.

83. Ibid.

84. Op. cit. 81.

85. Geraldo de Assis Guimaraes, "Mercury Releases in the Amazon Region: Its Environmental, Social, Economical and Political Impacts," distributed at workshop on the "Effects of Industrial Activity on Human and Ecosystem Health," White Oak Plantation, Yulee, Florida, May 19-21,1994.

86. Geraldo de Assis Guimaraes, et al, "Aspects of Environmental Impact caused by Gold 'Garimpagem' Activities in the Amazon Region," (May 1994).

87. Geraldo de Assis Guimarães, Professor Emeritus, Universidade Federal do Pará, Belém-Pará, Brazil (speaking at a workshop on the "Effects of Industrial Activity on Human and Ecosystem Health," White Oak Plantation, Yulee Florida, May 19-21,1994).

88. Martin Lodenius, "Mercury Contamination in the Tucurui Reservoir, Brazil," International Workshop on Epidemiological Studies on the Effect of Metyl Mercury, Kumamoto, Japan, February 10,1992.

89. Op. cit. 87.

90. Op. cit. 87.

91. Bernardo S. Cardoso, et al. "Clinical Toxicological Manifestations Observed in Patients with Mercury Intoxication from Gold Digging in Tapajos" distributed at a workshop on the "Effects of Industrial Activity on Human and Ecosystem Health' White Oak Plantation, Yulee, Florida, May 19-21,1994.

92. Geraldo de Assis Guimaraes, Professor Emeritus Universidade Federal do Pará, Belém-Pará, Brazil, (speaking at a workshop on the "Effects of Industrial Activity on Human and Ecosystem Health," White Oak Plantation, Yulee, Florida, May 19-21,1994).

93. Geraldo de Assis Guimaraes, (V) Professor Emeritus Universidade Federal do Pará, Belém-Pará Brazil, (speaking at a workshop on the "Effects of Industrial Activity on Human and Ecosystem Health," White Oak Plantation, Yulee, Florida, May 19-21,1994).

94. Op. cit. 3, p. 333.

95. Vladimir Bencko, E.V. Vasilieva, and K. Symon, "Immunological Aspects of Exposure to Emissions from Burnng Coal of High Beryllium Content," Environmental Research, Vol. 22, No. 2 (August 1980), pp. 439-449.

96. Vladimir Bencko, Head, Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic (speaking at a workshop on the "Effects of Industrial Activity on Human and Ecosystem Health," White Oak Plantation, Yulee, Florida, May 19-21,1994.

97. Vladimir Bencko, "Use of Human Hair as Biomarker in the Assessment of Exposure to Pollutants in Occupational and Environmental Settings," (Bilthoven, CRACOW: World Health Organization Euro, September 13-14,1993).

98. Ibid.

99. Janusz A. Indulski and Ryszard Rolecki, "Industrialization and Environmental Health in Poland," prepared for a workshop on the "Effects of Industrial Activity on Human and Ecosystem Health," White Oak Plantation, Yulee, Florida, May 19-21,1994.

100. Janusz A. Indulski, Director, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz, Poland (speaking at a workshop on the "Effects of Industrial Activity on Human and Ecosystem Health" White Oak Plantation, Yulee, Florida, May 19-21,1994).

101. Op. cit. 100.

102. Op. cit. 100.

103. Elena Perfilieva, Head, Ecology Department, Personality Development Center, Movokuznetsk, Russia (speaking at a workshop on the "Effects of Industrial Activity on Human and Ecosystem Health," White Oak Plantation, Yulee, Florida, May 19-21,1994).

104. Viktor Koltun, Head, Hygiene Department, Institute for Advanced Training of Doctors, Novokyznetsk (speaking at a workshop on the "Effects of Industrial Activity on Human and Ecosystem Health," White Oak Plantation, Yulee, Florida, May 19-21,1994).

105. Ibid.

106. B. A. Revich, et. al., "Population Health and Environmental Chemical Pollution in Russia" (Moscow: The Center for Russian Environmental Policy, The International Foundation for Socio-Economic Aid, and The All-Russian Association of Trade Unions from Regions of Unsafe Ecological Conditions, 1994).

107. Ibid.

108. Ibid.

109. Ibid., Table 8.

110. Op. cit. 44.

111. Hardin Tibbs, "Industrial Ecology: An Agenda for Environmental Management," Pollution Prevention Review, Vol. 2, No. 2 (Spring 1992), p. 168.

112. Robert Frosch, "Industrial Ecology: A Philosophical Introduction," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 89, No. 3 (January, 1992), pp. 800-803.

113. C. Kumar and N. Patel, "Industrial Ecology," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 89, No. 3 (January, 1992), p. 798.

114. U.S. Office of Technology Assessment (OTA), Green Products by Design: Choices for a Cleaner Environment (OTA) (Washington, D.C.: OTA) p. 3.

115. Robert Frosch, "Strategies for Manufacturing," Scientific American, Vol. 261, No. 3 (September 1989), pp. 144-152.

116. Op. cit. 112.

117. Op. cit. 113.

118. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), An Introduction to EPA's Design for the Environment Program, pamphlet (Washington, D.C.: EPA, 1993), p. 1.

119. Op. cit. 44.

120. Op. cit. 31.

121. Stephen Schmidheiny, Changing Course: A Global Perspective on Development and the Environment (Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, 1992), p. 6.

122. James Gustave Speth, "The Transition to a Sustainable Society," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 89, No. 3 (January, 1992), p. 870.

123. Op. cit. 122.

124. Op. cit. 122.

125. Op. cit. 123, p. 871.

126. Op. cit. p. 60.

127. Bruce Wilcox, President, Institute for Sustainable Development Menlo Park, California (speaking at a workshop on the "Effects of Industrial Activity on Human and Ecosystem Health," White Oak Plantation, Yulee, Florida, May 19-21,1994).

128. Op. cit. 28.

129. Op. cit. 40.

130. Op. cit. 74.

131. Op. cit. 74.

132. John S. Stanley, "Broad Scan Analysis of the FY82 Human Adiose Tissue Survey Specimens: Volume I - Executive Summary," prepared for the Office of Toxic Substances, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, (EPA-560/5-86-035), December 31,1986.

133. Op. cit. 44.

134. Robert Coppock, Director, the 2050 Project, World Resources Institute, Washington, D.C. (speaking at a workshop on the "Effects of Industrial Activity on Human and Ecosystem Health," White Oak Plantation, Yulee, Florida, May 19-21,1994.