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close this bookEnvironmental Limits to Motorisation (SKAT, 1993)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentPreface
View the documentAcknowledgements
Open this folder and view contents1. Synopsis
View the document2. Dreaming of cars and motorbikes
Open this folder and view contents3. Limits to the growth of motorisation
Open this folder and view contents4. The bicycle boom in developed countries
Open this folder and view contents5. Transport needs and NMT in the Third World
Open this folder and view contents6. Towards a strategy to promote NMT
Open this folder and view contents7. Towards model projects "Towns for cyclists" in the Third World
View the document8. Concluding remarks: a new paradigm for urban transport
View the document9. References
View the document10. Glossary


This study could not have been undertaken without the help of many people and organisations, too many to be listed comprehensively here. I can only mention a few of them: Prof. John Howe from International Institute for Hydraulic and Environmental Engineering, IHE (Delft); Peter Van Balen and Ruud Vermeulen from Delft University of Technology (Delft); Tony Airey, Mary Anderson and Ian Barwell, from Intermediate Technology Transport (United Kingdom); John P. Morgan and P.R. Fouracre, from the Transport and Road Research Laboratory, TRRL (United Kingdom); Evelyne Herfkens, Sandra Bloemenkamp, Peter Midgley, Richard G. Scurfield, Paul A. Guitink, Richard Barrett, Gerhard Menckhoff and Thampil Pankaj from the World Bank (Washington); Michael Replogle, Walter Hook and Julia Philpott, from the Institute for Transportation and Development Policy, ITDP ( New York); Ricardo Navarro and Armin Spichiger, from the Centro Salvadoreño de Tecnología Apropiada, CESTA (El Salvador); Theresa and Larry Egan, from the International Development Enterprises, IDE (Hanoi), and many more.

Not only has the Swiss Development Cooperation given me the opportunity to take a sabbatical, but I have benefited from the active support of two colleagues, Paul Peter and Walter Meier. With Werner Fuchs, from the Swiss Centre for Development Cooperation in Technology and Management (SKAT), I found a very understanding and supportive publisher. My greatest endebtness goes to Robert Gallagher, who did substantial editing and proof-reading work. Paul and Lesley Osborn also made a significant contribution, by editing the final version of the manuscript. Finally, I would like to thank my wife Françoise, who accompanied me during our trip and was a critical and intelligent discussion partner. Without all these inputs, this book would have been poorer and would have contained more mistakes. I do, however, take the responsibility for all the remaining errors.

Bangalore, March 1993 Urs Heierli

The prospect of China and India becoming as highly motorised as Europe or the USA may concern more than one ecologist, and yet, this is becoming a reality. Both India and China are increasing their fleets of motorised vehicles at an exponential rate. Why shouldn't the emerging middle classes of developing countries consider access to motorised vehicles to be their right, and the best expression of their newly acquired status? Must not this demand be seen as a right, especially since the industrialised countries are unwilling to implement alternative transport strategies to reduce their motorisation drastically? Is there an alternative to motorisation? Are traffic congestion and the consequent pollution in Third World cities unavoidable?

This book examines non-motorised transport - bicycles, rickshaws, electric vehicles - as a decisive component in a new strategy for urban transport, in both developing and developed countries. In the most advanced cities of Europe in this field like Erlangen (Germany), Delft (Netherlands) and Basel (Switzerland), public transport and bicycles provide a new quality of life, especially in "traffic-calmed" inner cities.

The author: Urs Heierli was born in Switzerland and did his Ph.D in development economics at St Gallen University. From 1979 to 1987, he headed SKAT. In this capacity, he wrote part of "La Bicicleta", a compendium on bicycles and tricycles as a mode of transport in Latin America. Since 1987, he has been working for the Swiss Development Cooperation (SDC), first in Dhaka, Bangladesh, and, since early 1992, in Bangalore, India.

ISBN 3-908001-41-2
Environmental Limits to Motorisation