Cover Image
close this bookBioconversion of Organic Residues for Rural Communities (UNU, 1979)
close this folderMicro-organisms as tools for rural processing of organic residues
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentMicrobial utilization of mono- and di-saccharide residues
View the documentMicrobial conversion of starchy residues
View the documentMicrobial conversion of complex mixtures of compounds (Polysaccharides, Proteins, Lipids, etc.)
View the documentMicrobial utilization of cellulose and ligno-cellulose residues
View the documentAlgal culture as a source of biomass
View the documentMicrobial utilization of silviculture biomass
View the documentMicro-organisms and marine and freshwater biomass
View the documentInternational studies on processing organic residues
View the documentReferences

International studies on processing organic residues

Considerable work is being done in several countries on the microbial production of food, energy, enzymes, and other useful substances from natural and agro-industrial wastes.

Some of these processes are, or could be, adapted to rural areas where the residues originate. A few examples are listed in Table 5, from the paper by Olembo (36) in the monograph on the Global Impacts of Applied Microbiology and Its Relevance to Developing Countries (37).

TABLE 5. Products Obtained in Various Countries from Residues Using Micro-organisms

Country Product Residue material Organism
Egypt Microbial protein Bagasse. rice hulls, distillery slops Candida utilis

C tropicalis

Chile Microbial protein Fruit peels, papaya wastes Yeast
Guatemala Animal feeds, alcohol,

enzymes, etc.

Bagasse, fruit wastes, coffee-bean by-

products, cotton cake, etc.

Bacteria, yeast,

fungi, algae

Indonesia Ontjom, tempe mate, kedele Soybean, peanut presscake Neurospora sp Rhizopus sp.
Israel Fodder yeast Citrus peels, cannery wastes C. tropicalis
Malaysia Fish sauce, poultry feed,

glutamate, vitamins

Fish wastes, tapioca rejects, rubber and

palm oil effluents


Chlorella sp.

Philippines Vinegar, nata di, coco Copra extraction waters Torula sp. Leuconostoc sp.
Sri Lanka Vinegar, acidulants Molasses, copra waters Torula sp.
Thailand Microbial protein, fish sauce, etc. Fish rejects, tapioca, coconut, vegetable wastes, etc. Chlorella sp.

Torula sp.

Source: Olembo (36); data from UNEP/U/ICRO Training Courses.

The main objectives of the studies reported range from the need for an increase in protein food production to pollution abatement, and from industrial expansion to innovative research on the use of beneficial micro-organisms to improve the environment and welfare of human beings throughout the world.