|Bioconversion of Organic Residues for Rural Communities (UNU, 1979)|
|Micro-organisms as tools for rural processing of organic residues|
Considerable work is being done in several countries on the microbial production of food, energy, enzymes, and other useful substances from natural and agro-industrial wastes.
Some of these processes are, or could be, adapted to rural areas where the residues originate. A few examples are listed in Table 5, from the paper by Olembo (36) in the monograph on the Global Impacts of Applied Microbiology and Its Relevance to Developing Countries (37).
TABLE 5. Products Obtained in Various Countries from Residues Using Micro-organisms
|Egypt||Microbial protein||Bagasse. rice hulls, distillery slops||Candida utilis
|Chile||Microbial protein||Fruit peels, papaya wastes||Yeast|
wastes, coffee-bean by-
products, cotton cake, etc.
|Indonesia||Ontjom, tempe mate, kedele||Soybean, peanut presscake||Neurospora sp Rhizopus sp.|
|Israel||Fodder yeast||Citrus peels, cannery wastes||C. tropicalis|
wastes, tapioca rejects, rubber and
palm oil effluents
|Philippines||Vinegar, nata di, coco||Copra extraction waters||Torula sp. Leuconostoc sp.|
|Sri Lanka||Vinegar, acidulants||Molasses, copra waters||Torula sp.|
|Thailand||Microbial protein, fish sauce, etc.||Fish rejects, tapioca, coconut, vegetable wastes, etc.||Chlorella sp.
Source: Olembo (36); data from UNEP/U/ICRO Training Courses.
The main objectives of the studies reported range from the need for an increase in protein food production to pollution abatement, and from industrial expansion to innovative research on the use of beneficial micro-organisms to improve the environment and welfare of human beings throughout the world.