|Reefs at Risk - A Map-Based Indicator of Threats to the World's Coral Reefs (WRI, 1998, 56 pages)|
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8 United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and World Conservation Union (IUCN), Coral Reefs of the World Volume 1: Atlantic and Eastern Pacific (Gland, Switzerland IUCN, 1988), xvi.
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11 James E Maragos, M P Crosby, and John W McManus, "Coral Reefs and Biodiversity: A Critical and Threatened Relationship," Oceanography 9, no 1 (1996), 87
12 Les Kaufman and Paul Dayton, "Impacts of Marine Resources Extraction on Ecosystem Services and Sustainability," in Nature's Services Societal Dependence on Natural Ecosystems, ed. Gretchen Daily (Washington, D C Island Press, 1997), 275.
13 Stephen C Jameson, John W McManus and Mark D Spalding, State of the Reefs Regional and Global Perspectives (Washington, DC. ICRI., U.S. Department of State, 1995), 24.
14 Donald Hinrichsen, "Requiem for Reefs?" International Wildlife (March/April 1997), 8.
15 Herman Cesar, Economic Analysis of Indonesian Coral Reefs (Washington, DC World Bank, 1996), 4, 16.
16 Charles Birkeland, ed, Life and Death of Coral Reefs (New York Chapman and Hall, 1997), 5
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18 Maragos, Crosby, and McManus, "Coral Reefs and Biodiversity," 85-7.
19 Birkeland Life and Death of Coral Reefs, 4.
20 Jameson, McManus, and Spalding, State of the Reefs, 24.
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29 Pennisi, "Brighter Prospects".
30 Gomez, Alino, Yap, and Licuanan, "A Review of the Status of Philippine Reefs," Marine Pollution Bulletin 29, nos. 1-3 (1994), 65-66.
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33 R. E. Johannes and M. Riepen, Environmental, Economic and Social Implications of the Live Fish Trade in Asia and the Western Pacific (Bonnet Hill, Tasmania, Australia, RE Johannes Pty Ltd and Wellington, New Zealand Fisheries Development Associates, 1995).
34 Brown, "Disturbances to Reefs," 365.
35 C. M. Eaken, "Where Have all the Carbonates Gone? A Model Comparison of Calcium Carbonate Budgets Before and After the 1982-1983 El Niño," Coral Reefs 15, no. 2 (1 Aqaba Environmental Action Plan (Washington D.C., World Bank, 1996), 996), 109-19.
36 P. W. Glynn, "Coral Reef Bleaching: Facts, Hypothesis and Implications," Global Change Biology 2, no. 6 (1996), 495-509.
37 Callum Roberts, Nigel Downing and Andrew Price, "Oil on Troubled Waters: Impacts of the Gulf War on Coral Reefs," in Proceedings of the Colloquium on Global Aspects of Coral Reefs: Health, Hazards and History (University of Miami, 1993), 132-37.
38 UNEP/IUCN, Coral Reefs of the World. Volume 2: Indian Ocean, Red Sea and Gulf (Gland, Switzerland: IUCN, 1988), xxi.
39 Brown, "Disturbances to Reefs," 373-4.
40 Brown, "Disturbances to Reefs," p. 376.
41 Joby Warrick, "Coral Reef off Florida Keys Caught in Wave of Deadly Disease," Washington Post, February 9, 1997, A3.
42 Rodney Salm, "The Status of Coral Reefs in the Western Indian Ocean with Notes on Related Ecosystems," working paper prepared for the International Coral Reef Initiative Workshop, Seychelles, March 1996.
43 Mark Spalding, Francois Blasco, and Colin Field, eds., World Mangrove Atlas (Okinawa: International Society for Mangrove Ecosystems, 1997), 11.
44 Wilkinson and Buddemeier, Global Climate Change, 40, 103.
45 S. C. Jameson, J. W. McManus and M. M. Spalding, State of the Reefs: Regional and Global Perspectives (Washington, D.C.) I.C.R.L, U.S. Department of State, 1995), 6-7.
46 Jorge Cortes, "Status of the Caribbean Coral Reefs of Central America," in Proceedings of the 8th International Coral Reef Symposium (Balboa, Panama, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, 1997), 339.
47 Rajasuriya, De Silva, and Ohman, "Coral Reefs of Sri Lanka: Human Disturbance and Management Issues," Ambio 24, nos. 7-8 (December 1995), 428-29.
48 Arjan Rajasuriya, "Present Status of Coral Reefs in Sri Lanka," in Proceedings of the Colloquium on Global Aspects of Coral Reefs: Health, Hazards and History (University of Miami, 1993), 411.
49 Callum Roberts, Nigel Downing, and Andrew Price, "Oil on Troubled Waters: Impacts of the Gulf War on Coral Reefs," in Proceedings of the Colloquium on Global Aspects of Coral Reefs: Health, Hazards and History (University of Miami, 1993), 136.
50 Peter Weber, "Reviving Coral Reefs" in State of the World 1993 (Washington, D.C.: WorldWatch Institute, 1993) 48.
51 Clive Wilkinson, personal communication. Reporting on results from the 1996 International Coral Reef Symposium.
52 Ewald Lieske and Robert Myers, Coral Reef Fishes: Caribbean, Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean Including the Red Sea (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1996), 7.
53 Cesar, Economic Analysis, 25.
54 Gomez, Alino, Yap, and Licuanan, "Philippine Reefs," 64.
55 J. E. Maragos and C. Payri, "The Status of Coral Reef Habitats in the Insular South and East Pacific," in Proceedings of the 8th International Coral Reef Symposium (Balboa, Panama: Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, 1997), 311.
56 Leon Zann, "The Status of Coral Reefs in South Western Pacific Islands," Marine Pollution Bulletin 29, nos. 1-3 (1994), 53-55.
57 E. Dinerstein, D. M. Olson, D. J. Graham, A. L. Webster, S. A. Primm, M. P. Bookbinder and G. Ledec, A Conservation Assessment of the Terrestrial Ecoregions of Latin America and the Caribbean (Washington, D.C.: World Bank and the World Wildlife Fund, 1995).
58 Nels Johnson, Biodiversity in the Balance: Approaches to Setting Geographic Conservation Priorities (Washington, D.C.: Biodiversity Support Program, 1995), 9.
59 William Smith-Vaniz, James Bohnsack, and James Williams, "Reef Fishes of the Florida Keys," in Our Living Resources: A Report to the Nation on the Distribution, Abundance, and Health of U.S. Plants, Animals and Ecosystems (U.S. Department of Interior), 279.
60 UNEP/IUCN, Coral Reefs of the World. Volume 1, 311-15.
61 Ibid., 251-52.
62 H. M. Guzman, J. B. C. Jackson, and E. Weil, "Short-term Ecological Consequences of a Major Oil Spill on Panamanian Subtidal Reef Corals," Coral Reefs 10 (1991), 1-12.
63 H. M. Guzman and I. Hoist, "Effects of Chronic Oil-sediment Pollution on the Reproduction of the Caribbean Reef Coral Siderastrea Sidera," Marine Pollution Bulletin 26 (1993), 276-82.
64 H. M. Guzman, K. A. Burs, and I. B. C. Jackson, "Injury, Regeneration and Growth of Caribbean Coral Reef Communities After a Major Oil Spill in Panama," in Marine Ecology Program Series 105 (1994), 231-41.
65 UNEP/IUCN, Coral Reefs of the World. Volume 1,177.
66 K. Nakatani, A. Rajasuriya, A. Premaratne, and A. T. White, eds., The Coastal Environmental Profile of Hikkaduwa, Sri Lanka (Colombo, Sri Lanka: Coastal Resources Management Project, 1994).
67 A. Rajasuriya and A. T. White, "Coral Reefs of Sri Lanka: Review of Their Extent, Condition and Management Status," Coastal Management 23 (1995), 77-90.
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69 Jameson, McManus, and Spalding, State of the Reefs, 10.
70 Stephen Jameson and David Smith, "Coral Reef Management on the New Red Sea Riviera," Proceedings of Coastal Zone 1997 2 (1997), 784-86.
71 Jameson, McManus, and Spalding, State of the Reefs, 10.
72 L. M. Chou, "The Status of Southeast Asian Coral Reefs," in Proceedings of the 8th International Coral Reef Symposium (Balboa, Panama Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, 1997), 317.
73 UNEP/IUCN, Coral Reefs of the World Volume 2, 307-9.
74 J. W. McManus and M C Ablan, eds., ReefBase A Global Database on Coral Reefs and Their Resources User's Guide Version 2.0 (Makati City, Philippines International Center for Living Marine Aquatic Resources, 1997)
75 P. J. Mumby, E P Green, A J Edwards, and C D Clarke, Coral Reef Habitat Mapping How Much Detail Can Remote Sensing Provide? (in press).
76 D. L. B. Jupp, "Background and Extensions to Depth Penetration Mapping in Shallow Coastal Waters," paper presented at the Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Coastal Zone, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia, 1988.
77 Mumby, Green, Edwards, and dark, Coral Reef Habitat Mapping.
78 D. Hopley and P. C. Catt, "The Use of Infrared Aerial Photography for Monitoring Ecological Changes to Coral Reef Flats on the Great Barrier Reef," in Proceedings of the 6th International Coral Reef Symposium (Townsville, Australia, 1988), 503-8.
79 J. W. McManus et al, "Coral Reef Fishery Sampling Methods," in Stock Assessment Qualitative Methods and Applications for Small-Scale Fisheries, eds. V. F. Galluci et al. (New York CRC Lewis Publishers, 1996).
80 D. Hopley, Aerial Photography and Other Remote Sensing Techniques In Coral Reefs Research Methods, eds. D R Stoddard and R E Johannes (Pans UNESCO), 231-50.
81 Mumby, Green, Edwards, and Clarke, Coral Reef Habitat Mapping
82 Hopley and Catt, "Use of Infrared Aerial Photography".
83 Hopley, "Aerial Photography".
84 McManus et al. "Coral Reef Fishery Sampling Methods."
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87 Rhoads, Muramoto, and Ward, Review of Sensors.
88 Charles H Mazel, personal communication.
89 Alan White, personal communication
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91 Birkeland, Life and Death of Coral Reefs, 428.
92 Butler, Burnett-Herkes, Barnes and Ward, "The Bermuda Fisheries," 7-32.
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95 Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, World Bank, and World Conservation Union, A Global Representative System of Marine Protected Areas Volume II Wider Caribbean, West Africa and South Atlantic, eds. Graeme Kelleher, Chris Bleakley and Sue Wells (Washington, D.C. World Bank, 1995), 7.
96 World Conservation Union (IUCN), "Parks for Life, A New Beginning" IUCN Bulletin 23, no 2 (1992), 10.
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99 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Reporter's Coral Reef Tip Sheet, June 2, 1997.
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