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close this bookReefs at Risk - A Map-Based Indicator of Threats to the World's Coral Reefs (WRI, 1998, 56 pages)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentAcknowledgments
View the documentForeword
View the documentKey Findings
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentReefs and People: What Is at Stake?
View the documentThreats to Reefs
View the documentThe Reefs at Risk Indicator
View the documentStatus of the World's Coral Reefs
View the documentTwelve Reefs at Risk
View the documentImproving Our Knowledge Base
View the documentProtecting the Health of Coral Reef Ecosystems
View the documentTechnical Notes
View the documentAbout the Authors
View the documentEndnotes


1 Don McAllister, "Status of the World Ocean and Its Biodiversity," Sea. Wind 9, no 4 (1995), 14.

2 Clive Wilkinson, "Coral Reefs Are Facing Widespread Devastation Can We Prevent This Through Sustainable Management Practices?" in Proceedings of the 7th International Coral Reef Symposium 1 (Guam, 1993), 11-21.

3 Elizabeth Pennisi, "Brighter Prospects for the World's Coral Reefs?" Science 277 (July 25, 1997), 492

4 Robert Costanza et al, "The Value of the World's Ecosystem Services and Natural Capital," Nature 387 (May 15, 1997), 256

5 Gustav Paulay, "Diversity and Distribution of Reef Organisms," in Life and Death of Coral Reefs, ed Charles Birkeland (New York Chapman and Hall, 1997), 303-4

6 David Malakoff, "Extinction on the High Seas," Science 277 (July 25, 1997), 487-88

7 Elliot Norse, ed., Global Marine Biological Diversity A Strategy for Building Conservation into Decision Making (Washington, D C Island Press, 1993), 14.

8 United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and World Conservation Union (IUCN), Coral Reefs of the World Volume 1: Atlantic and Eastern Pacific (Gland, Switzerland IUCN, 1988), xvi.

9 Mark Spalding and A M Grenfell, "New Estimates of Global and Regional Coral Reef Areas," Coral Reefs (1997) 16 225-230.

10 Clive Wilkinson and Robert Buddemeier, Global Climate Change and Coral Reefs Implications for People and Reefs (Gland, Switzerland IUCN, 1994), 6.

11 James E Maragos, M P Crosby, and John W McManus, "Coral Reefs and Biodiversity: A Critical and Threatened Relationship," Oceanography 9, no 1 (1996), 87

12 Les Kaufman and Paul Dayton, "Impacts of Marine Resources Extraction on Ecosystem Services and Sustainability," in Nature's Services Societal Dependence on Natural Ecosystems, ed. Gretchen Daily (Washington, D C Island Press, 1997), 275.

13 Stephen C Jameson, John W McManus and Mark D Spalding, State of the Reefs Regional and Global Perspectives (Washington, DC. ICRI., U.S. Department of State, 1995), 24.

14 Donald Hinrichsen, "Requiem for Reefs?" International Wildlife (March/April 1997), 8.

15 Herman Cesar, Economic Analysis of Indonesian Coral Reefs (Washington, DC World Bank, 1996), 4, 16.

16 Charles Birkeland, ed, Life and Death of Coral Reefs (New York Chapman and Hall, 1997), 5

17 William Fenical, "Marine Biodiversity and the Medicine Cabinet The Status of New Drugs from Marine Organisms," Oceanography, 9, no 1 (1996), 23-24.

18 Maragos, Crosby, and McManus, "Coral Reefs and Biodiversity," 85-7.

19 Birkeland Life and Death of Coral Reefs, 4.

20 Jameson, McManus, and Spalding, State of the Reefs, 24.

21 Herman Cesar, Economic Analysis of Indonesian Coral Reefs (Washington, DC World Bank, 1996).

22 Robert Richmond, "Coral Reef Resources Pollution's Impacts," Forum for Applied Research and Public Policy 9, no 1 (Spring 1994), 55-56.

23 Mats Bjork, Salim Mzee Mohammad, Marie Bjorkland, and Adelaida Semesi, "Coralline Algae, Important Coral Reef Builders Threatened by Pollution," Ambio 24, nos 7-8 (December 1995), 502-4.

24 Barbara Brown, "Disturbances to Reefs in Recent Times," in Life and Death of Coral Reefs," ed. Charles Birkeland (New York Chapman and Hall, 1997), 370-72

25 Global Environment Facility, The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan Gulf of Aqaba Environmental Action Plan (Washington, D C World Bank, 1996), 5.

26 James Bohnsack, "The Impacts of Fishing on Coral Reefs," in Proceedings of the Colloquium on Global Aspects of Coral Reefs Health, Hazards and History (University of Miami, 1993), 196-98.

27 Simon Jennings and Nicholas Polunin, "Impacts of Fishing on Tropical Reef Ecosystems," Ambio 25, no 1 (February 1996), 44-46.

28 Callum Roberts, "Effects of Fishing on the Ecosystem Structure of Coral Reefs," Conservation Biology 9, no 5 (October 1995), 989-92.

29 Pennisi, "Brighter Prospects".

30 Gomez, Alino, Yap, and Licuanan, "A Review of the Status of Philippine Reefs," Marine Pollution Bulletin 29, nos. 1-3 (1994), 65-66.

31 Jorge Cortes, "A Reef Under Stress A Decade of Degradation," in Proceedings of the Colloquium on Global Aspects of Coral Reefs Health, Hazards and History (University of Miami, 1993), 240-45.

32 L. Talaue-McManus and K P N Kesner, "Valuation of a Philippine Municipal Sea Urchin Fishery and Implications of Its Collapse," in Philippine Coastal Resources Management Under Stress, eds. M A Juinio-Menez and G. F. Newkirk (Quezon City Coastal Resources Research Network and Marine Sciences Institute, University of the Philippines, 1995), 229-39.

33 R. E. Johannes and M. Riepen, Environmental, Economic and Social Implications of the Live Fish Trade in Asia and the Western Pacific (Bonnet Hill, Tasmania, Australia, RE Johannes Pty Ltd and Wellington, New Zealand Fisheries Development Associates, 1995).

34 Brown, "Disturbances to Reefs," 365.

35 C. M. Eaken, "Where Have all the Carbonates Gone? A Model Comparison of Calcium Carbonate Budgets Before and After the 1982-1983 El Niño," Coral Reefs 15, no. 2 (1 Aqaba Environmental Action Plan (Washington D.C., World Bank, 1996), 996), 109-19.

36 P. W. Glynn, "Coral Reef Bleaching: Facts, Hypothesis and Implications," Global Change Biology 2, no. 6 (1996), 495-509.

37 Callum Roberts, Nigel Downing and Andrew Price, "Oil on Troubled Waters: Impacts of the Gulf War on Coral Reefs," in Proceedings of the Colloquium on Global Aspects of Coral Reefs: Health, Hazards and History (University of Miami, 1993), 132-37.

38 UNEP/IUCN, Coral Reefs of the World. Volume 2: Indian Ocean, Red Sea and Gulf (Gland, Switzerland: IUCN, 1988), xxi.

39 Brown, "Disturbances to Reefs," 373-4.

40 Brown, "Disturbances to Reefs," p. 376.

41 Joby Warrick, "Coral Reef off Florida Keys Caught in Wave of Deadly Disease," Washington Post, February 9, 1997, A3.

42 Rodney Salm, "The Status of Coral Reefs in the Western Indian Ocean with Notes on Related Ecosystems," working paper prepared for the International Coral Reef Initiative Workshop, Seychelles, March 1996.

43 Mark Spalding, Francois Blasco, and Colin Field, eds., World Mangrove Atlas (Okinawa: International Society for Mangrove Ecosystems, 1997), 11.

44 Wilkinson and Buddemeier, Global Climate Change, 40, 103.

45 S. C. Jameson, J. W. McManus and M. M. Spalding, State of the Reefs: Regional and Global Perspectives (Washington, D.C.) I.C.R.L, U.S. Department of State, 1995), 6-7.

46 Jorge Cortes, "Status of the Caribbean Coral Reefs of Central America," in Proceedings of the 8th International Coral Reef Symposium (Balboa, Panama, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, 1997), 339.

47 Rajasuriya, De Silva, and Ohman, "Coral Reefs of Sri Lanka: Human Disturbance and Management Issues," Ambio 24, nos. 7-8 (December 1995), 428-29.

48 Arjan Rajasuriya, "Present Status of Coral Reefs in Sri Lanka," in Proceedings of the Colloquium on Global Aspects of Coral Reefs: Health, Hazards and History (University of Miami, 1993), 411.

49 Callum Roberts, Nigel Downing, and Andrew Price, "Oil on Troubled Waters: Impacts of the Gulf War on Coral Reefs," in Proceedings of the Colloquium on Global Aspects of Coral Reefs: Health, Hazards and History (University of Miami, 1993), 136.

50 Peter Weber, "Reviving Coral Reefs" in State of the World 1993 (Washington, D.C.: WorldWatch Institute, 1993) 48.

51 Clive Wilkinson, personal communication. Reporting on results from the 1996 International Coral Reef Symposium.

52 Ewald Lieske and Robert Myers, Coral Reef Fishes: Caribbean, Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean Including the Red Sea (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1996), 7.

53 Cesar, Economic Analysis, 25.

54 Gomez, Alino, Yap, and Licuanan, "Philippine Reefs," 64.

55 J. E. Maragos and C. Payri, "The Status of Coral Reef Habitats in the Insular South and East Pacific," in Proceedings of the 8th International Coral Reef Symposium (Balboa, Panama: Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, 1997), 311.

56 Leon Zann, "The Status of Coral Reefs in South Western Pacific Islands," Marine Pollution Bulletin 29, nos. 1-3 (1994), 53-55.

57 E. Dinerstein, D. M. Olson, D. J. Graham, A. L. Webster, S. A. Primm, M. P. Bookbinder and G. Ledec, A Conservation Assessment of the Terrestrial Ecoregions of Latin America and the Caribbean (Washington, D.C.: World Bank and the World Wildlife Fund, 1995).

58 Nels Johnson, Biodiversity in the Balance: Approaches to Setting Geographic Conservation Priorities (Washington, D.C.: Biodiversity Support Program, 1995), 9.

59 William Smith-Vaniz, James Bohnsack, and James Williams, "Reef Fishes of the Florida Keys," in Our Living Resources: A Report to the Nation on the Distribution, Abundance, and Health of U.S. Plants, Animals and Ecosystems (U.S. Department of Interior), 279.

60 UNEP/IUCN, Coral Reefs of the World. Volume 1, 311-15.

61 Ibid., 251-52.

62 H. M. Guzman, J. B. C. Jackson, and E. Weil, "Short-term Ecological Consequences of a Major Oil Spill on Panamanian Subtidal Reef Corals," Coral Reefs 10 (1991), 1-12.

63 H. M. Guzman and I. Hoist, "Effects of Chronic Oil-sediment Pollution on the Reproduction of the Caribbean Reef Coral Siderastrea Sidera," Marine Pollution Bulletin 26 (1993), 276-82.

64 H. M. Guzman, K. A. Burs, and I. B. C. Jackson, "Injury, Regeneration and Growth of Caribbean Coral Reef Communities After a Major Oil Spill in Panama," in Marine Ecology Program Series 105 (1994), 231-41.

65 UNEP/IUCN, Coral Reefs of the World. Volume 1,177.

66 K. Nakatani, A. Rajasuriya, A. Premaratne, and A. T. White, eds., The Coastal Environmental Profile of Hikkaduwa, Sri Lanka (Colombo, Sri Lanka: Coastal Resources Management Project, 1994).

67 A. Rajasuriya and A. T. White, "Coral Reefs of Sri Lanka: Review of Their Extent, Condition and Management Status," Coastal Management 23 (1995), 77-90.

68 A. T White, V Barker, and G Tantrigama, "Using Integrated Coastal Management and Economics to Conserve Coastal Tourism Resources in Sri Lanka," Ambio 26, no 6 (1997), 335-44.

69 Jameson, McManus, and Spalding, State of the Reefs, 10.

70 Stephen Jameson and David Smith, "Coral Reef Management on the New Red Sea Riviera," Proceedings of Coastal Zone 1997 2 (1997), 784-86.

71 Jameson, McManus, and Spalding, State of the Reefs, 10.

72 L. M. Chou, "The Status of Southeast Asian Coral Reefs," in Proceedings of the 8th International Coral Reef Symposium (Balboa, Panama Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, 1997), 317.

73 UNEP/IUCN, Coral Reefs of the World Volume 2, 307-9.

74 J. W. McManus and M C Ablan, eds., ReefBase A Global Database on Coral Reefs and Their Resources User's Guide Version 2.0 (Makati City, Philippines International Center for Living Marine Aquatic Resources, 1997)

75 P. J. Mumby, E P Green, A J Edwards, and C D Clarke, Coral Reef Habitat Mapping How Much Detail Can Remote Sensing Provide? (in press).

76 D. L. B. Jupp, "Background and Extensions to Depth Penetration Mapping in Shallow Coastal Waters," paper presented at the Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Coastal Zone, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia, 1988.

77 Mumby, Green, Edwards, and dark, Coral Reef Habitat Mapping.

78 D. Hopley and P. C. Catt, "The Use of Infrared Aerial Photography for Monitoring Ecological Changes to Coral Reef Flats on the Great Barrier Reef," in Proceedings of the 6th International Coral Reef Symposium (Townsville, Australia, 1988), 503-8.

79 J. W. McManus et al, "Coral Reef Fishery Sampling Methods," in Stock Assessment Qualitative Methods and Applications for Small-Scale Fisheries, eds. V. F. Galluci et al. (New York CRC Lewis Publishers, 1996).

80 D. Hopley, Aerial Photography and Other Remote Sensing Techniques In Coral Reefs Research Methods, eds. D R Stoddard and R E Johannes (Pans UNESCO), 231-50.

81 Mumby, Green, Edwards, and Clarke, Coral Reef Habitat Mapping

82 Hopley and Catt, "Use of Infrared Aerial Photography".

83 Hopley, "Aerial Photography".

84 McManus et al. "Coral Reef Fishery Sampling Methods."

85 D. C. Rhoads, J. A. Muramoto, and R. Ward, A Review of Sensors Appropriate for Efficient Assessment of Submerged Coastal Habitats and Biological Habitats, Technical Report EL-96 (Vicksburg, Miss.; U S Army Corps of Engineers, 1996)

86 R. D. McCaughley "The Sounds of Coral Reefs "Joint Conference on Science, Management and Sustainability in the 21st Century Abstracts (Townsville, Australia James Cook University of North Queensland, 1994), 49.

87 Rhoads, Muramoto, and Ward, Review of Sensors.

88 Charles H Mazel, personal communication.

89 Alan White, personal communication

90 James Butler, James Burnett-Herkes, John Barnes, and Jack Ward, "The Bermuda Fisheries A Tragedy of the Commons Averted?" Environment 35, no 1 (1993), 8-13.

91 Birkeland, Life and Death of Coral Reefs, 428.

92 Butler, Burnett-Herkes, Barnes and Ward, "The Bermuda Fisheries," 7-32.

93 Yasmin Arquize and Alan White, Tales from Tubbataha: Natural History, Resource Use, and Conservation of the Tubbataha Reefs Palawan Philippines (Bandillo ng Palawan Foundation, Philippines, 1994).

94 Alan White and V P Palaganas, "Philippine Tubbataha Reef National Marine Park Status, Management Issues and Proposed Plan," Environmental Conservation 18, no 2 (1991), 148-57.

95 Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, World Bank, and World Conservation Union, A Global Representative System of Marine Protected Areas Volume II Wider Caribbean, West Africa and South Atlantic, eds. Graeme Kelleher, Chris Bleakley and Sue Wells (Washington, D.C. World Bank, 1995), 7.

96 World Conservation Union (IUCN), "Parks for Life, A New Beginning" IUCN Bulletin 23, no 2 (1992), 10.

97 Will Hildesley "Marine Protected Areas WWF's Role in Their Future Development," draft WWF International discussion document (Gland, Switzerland, February 1998).

98 A. Charlotte de Fontaubert, David Downes, and Tundi Agardy, Biodiversity in the Seas: Implementing the Convention on Biological Diversity in Marine and Coastal Habitats (Gland, Switzerland World Conservation Union, 1996).

99 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Reporter's Coral Reef Tip Sheet, June 2, 1997.

100 David Downes and A Charlotte de Fountaubert, "Biodiversity in the Seas Conservation and Sustainable Use Through International Cooperation," CIEL Brief (Center for International Environmental Law, no 4, October 1996), 5.



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