|Boiling Point No. 04 - March 1983 (ITDG Boiling Point, 1983)|
The ITDG Stoves team has been writing up results of evaluation studies which its members have carried out in Sri Lanka, Indonesia, and Kenya. We have-been trying to synthesise this information together with that from other-evaluation studies carried out in Senegal, Mali, Niger and Gambia, to determine the impact of present stove programmes, and the constraints they face.
It would seem, from the information available, that it is difficult to determine with any certainty what fuelwood savings are being achieved (although it appears that in some projects there are net savings).
The performance of a mud stove decreases as it ages, as cracks appear and pieces of the internal walls flake off. It is evident that people will abandon their new stove when it ages to the point at which it uses more wood and takes longer to cook than the old stove. Lining the inner walls of mud stoves with a pottery insert significantly increases the lifetime and also increases the performance of a stove (over that lifetime).
It is also found that chimney stoves do not necessarily lead to increase in performance (although they have the benefit of removing smoke from the kitchen). A great deal of careful design work is required to avoid blockage of the flues leading to the chimney. The chimney must be easy to cIean and there must be a considerable effort expended to train users how to clean the stove (or else train the stove builder, or some other person to establish a stove cleaning enterprise).
One of the main attributes that have motivated many users to adopt or make frequent use of a new stove appears to be a decrease in cooking time. Women value the extra time for either extra household chores or extra agricultural work. Hates of adoption appear to be greater in areas where people spend a considerable proportion of their income on fuel purchase; this especially applies in urban areas where charcoal is the main fuel.
It has been noted in most programmes that many of the new stoves do not fulfil all the functions of the existing open or shielded fireplaces. In particular, most stoves that have been introduced to date are not portable. In Africa people often cook outside. Enclosed stoves do not provide light, and often not enough heat to warm people during the cold season. Massive mud stoves often take longer and use more wood than an open fire to boil water just for tea.
This only represents some of the findings of these evaluation studies. Over the next year we hope to be able to detail the reasons why people do or do not adopt a stove, and what the potential impact of stove programmes could be.