|Boiling Point No. 15 - April 1988 (ITDG Boiling Point, 1988)|
Sri Lanka and Kenya offer two very different stove development pictures, but both can claim success in terms of the usage of fuel efficient stoves by a significant number of households, over 100,000 in Sri Lanka and some 250,000 in Kenya.
In Sri Lanka the National Fuelwood Conservation Programme of the Ministry of Power and Energy has first of all addressed the rural householders' needs with a subsidised, multi-pot, ceramic liner/ mud stove to burn wood. It has capitalised on the governments ability to provide the infrastructure needed for the distribution and installation of stoves using local government agents as well as the government information services to create awareness of the benefits of the stove.
The Kenyan success has been in the subsidised development and now commercial production of the urban charcoal burning Jiko stove.
Whilst both programmes may have started with the reduction of fuelwood consumption and deforestation as their primary objectives, there was early recognition and response to the fact that stoves are bought by users wanting the benefits of a quicker, cleaner, better looking stove which they can afford.
Sri Lanka is now tackling the commercial production of stoves for urban areas and faces the challenge of making the well established, subsidised rural stove production self sustaining. There is an increasing demand for stoves as more and more Sri Lankans see the benefits for themselves. With the continuing nationally coordinated programme the future looks promising.
As Kenya now concentrates on the needs of the rural areas through programmes being undertaken by a number of agencies, the lack of overall national co-ordination to direct resources most efficiently is noticeable. However, the Maendeleo- GTZ programme has a national plan that is to be implemented in co- ordination with the government and other involved agencies such as KENGO and Bellerive. The stove being promoted is a ceramic liner with a mud surround, the full cost of liner and installation being met by the householder.
There is no doubt, however, that we can learn much from the experiences of Kenya and Sri Lanka and we hope that the following articles will help planners and stove practitioners to make their own programmes more effective.