Cover Image
close this bookAfrica's Valuable Assets - A Reader in Natural Resource Management (WRI, 1998, 464 pages)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentForeword
View the documentAcknowledgments
close this folder1. Africa's Wealth, Woes, Worth
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentThe Myth of Bankruptcy
View the documentLearning from Local Success
View the documentSeeds of Change
View the documentInvesting in People
View the documentReformulating Investment and Assistance
View the documentTrade Relationships
View the documentAid Relationships
View the documentConclusion
View the documentNotes
close this folder2. Institutionalizing Environmental Management in Africa
View the document(introduction...)
close this folderInstitutional Choices
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentInstitutional Location
View the documentInterinstitutional Conflicts
close this folderConclusions and Recommendations on Institutional Choices
View the documentConclusions
View the documentRecommendations
close this folderCoordination
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentSharing Information
View the documentSharing Resources
View the documentJoint Actions
close this folderConclusions and Recommendations on Coordination
View the documentConclusions
View the documentRecommendations
close this folderPolitical Support
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentGovernment Commitment to Process
View the documentUnderstanding the Issues at Stake
View the documentResource Allocation for Institutional Development
View the documentInvolvement of Political Leadership
close this folderConclusions and Recommendations on Political Support
View the documentConclusions
View the documentRecommendations
close this folderLocal and Subnational-Level Participation
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentDecentralization Policy and the NEAP Process
View the documentNational Ownership of the Planning Process
View the documentNGO Participation
View the documentPlanning and Implementation Instruments
close this folderConclusions and Recommendations on Local and Subnational-Level Participation
View the documentConclusions
View the documentRecommendations
close this folderDevelopment Assistance
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentTechnical Assistance
View the documentCoordination and Continuity
View the documentDonor Conditionalities
close this folderConclusions and Recommendations on Funding Support
View the documentConclusions
View the documentRecommendations
close this folderCapacity Development
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentStrengthening Institutions
close this folderConclusions and Recommendations on Capacity Development
View the documentConclusions
View the documentRecommendations
View the documentAn Agenda for Implementing Environmental Management Strategy Plans
View the documentSelected References
close this folder3. Building Capacity for Sustainable Management of Natural Forests in East Africa
View the document(introduction...)
close this folderElements of Capacity for Sustainable Management of Natural Forests
View the documentPolitical Will
View the documentParticipation
View the documentPlanning, Coordination, Monitoring, Evaluation, and Updating
View the documentInformation Systems and Research
View the documentIntersectoral Collaboration
View the documentPolicy and Legislative Framework
View the documentAdministrative Framework
View the documentHuman Resources
View the documentFinancial and Other Material Resources
View the documentImplementation of Plans
close this folderRecommendations and Strategies for Building Capacity
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentCreating More Conducive Institutional Frameworks
View the documentMeeting Research, Information, and Training Needs
View the documentRegional Cooperation
View the documentIntegrating Local Management into International Systems
View the documentBibliography
close this folder4. Participation, Civil Society, and Foreign Assistance to Africa
View the document(introduction...)
close this folderParticipation: Definition and Contribution
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentWhy Is There Renewed Concern with Participation?
View the documentWhat Does ''Participation'' Mean in Development Discourse?
View the documentHow Does Participation Contribute to Development?
close this folderParticipation and Civil Society
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentParticipation as Political Process
View the documentParticipation, Civil Society, and the Law in Sub-Saharan Africa
close this folderFunder Support for Participation
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentImpact of Foreign Assistance
View the documentDevelopment Assistance Initiatives to Foster Participation
View the documentImplications for Action by Development Assistance Organizations
View the documentPolicy Implications
View the documentReferences
close this folder5. Participatory Policy-making and the Role of Local Non-governmental Organizations
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentPublic Policy-Making in Africa
View the documentWhy Participatory Policy-Making?
View the documentOpportunities for Participatory Policy-Making
View the documentGovernment-Sanctioned Participation
close this folderAdvocacy Strategies and Tactics
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentLitigation
View the documentMobilizing Constituencies
View the documentShaping National Policy in Foreign Countries
View the documentPopular Media
View the documentFormal Working Relations with Government
View the documentAlliance with Powerful NGOs
View the documentAlliance with Policy Reform Processes
View the documentProject Review
View the documentPersonal Contacts
View the documentPolicy Research
View the documentField Efforts and Pilot Projects
View the documentInfluencing International Institutions and Treaties
close this folderConstraints to Participatory Policy-Making
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentNGO Constraints
View the documentGovernment Constraints
close this folderRecommendations
View the documentWhat NGOs Can Do
View the documentWhat Governments Can Do
View the documentWhat Development Assistance Organizations Can Do
View the documentConclusion
View the documentNotes
close this folder6. Global Environmental Agreements and African National Priorities
View the document(introduction...)
close this folderSignificance for Africa of Current Global Environmental Agreements and Institutions
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentFramework Convention on Climate Change
View the documentConvention on Biological Diversity
View the documentConvention to Combat Desertification
View the documentThe World Trade Organization and GATT
View the documentThe Global Environment Facility
View the documentCurrent Needs and Opportunities for African Countries
View the documentPotential Conflicts and Problems
View the documentRoles for Development Assistance Agencies
close this folder7. Adapting to Climate Change in the Context of National Economic Planning and Development
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentClimate Change Mitigation and Adaptation in the African and Global Context
close this folderThe Theory of Adaptation
View the documentAdaptation and Maladaptation to Climate Change and Variability
View the documentAdapt to What?
View the documentWho and What Adapts?
View the documentHow Does Adaptation Occur?
View the documentWhen Does Adaptation Take Place?
View the documentWhat Are Adaptation Measures?
close this folderRelation to National Economic Development
View the documentWhat Capacity to Adapt?
View the documentIncreasing Adaptive Capacity
View the documentReduction of Current Losses and Vulnerability
View the documentReasons to Adapt Now
close this folderThe Development of an Adaptation Response Strategy
View the documentIdentification of Adaptation Options
View the documentEvaluation and Assessment of Adaptation Options
View the documentThe Example of Uganda
View the documentConclusions
View the documentReferences
close this folder8. African Development that Works
View the document(introduction...)
close this folderElements of Effective Community-Based Resource Management
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentRisks to Livelihood
View the documentOpportunities for Economic Growth
View the documentCultural Incentives
View the documentSecurity in Land and Resources
View the documentOrganizational and Management Capacity
View the documentTechnology, Materials, and Resources
View the documentPolitical Support and Legitimacy
close this folderRecommendations for Effective Community-Based Natural Resource Management
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentPolicies in Support of Sustainable Development
View the documentMarket Incentives for Natural Resource Management
View the documentSecurity in Land and Productive Natural Resources
View the documentDecentralization
View the documentIndependent Inputs into Government Decision-Making
View the documentDirect Support for Rural Farmers
View the documentA Call for Action
View the documentNotes
View the documentAppendix A. Case Studies ''From the Ground Up''1
View the documentReferences
close this folder9. Gender, Sustainable Development, and Improved Resource Management in Africa
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentBackground to Case Studies
View the documentWomen as Resource Managers and Producers in Africa
close this folderConstraints on Women's Effectiveness in Natural Resource Management
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentHeavy Labor Burdens
View the documentPoverty and Economic Barriers
View the documentBiased Tenure Systems and Legal Injustice
View the documentLack of Support from Institutions
View the documentLack of Appropriate Technologies
View the documentInequalities in Policy-Making and Power
View the documentResource Degradation
close this folderOpportunities and Recommendations
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentThe Value of Groups
View the documentEconomic Opportunities
View the documentWomen's Indigenous Knowledge
View the documentAccess to and Control of Resources
View the documentInstitutional Reform
View the documentEducation
View the documentAppropriate Technologies
View the documentPolitical Empowerment and Decision-Making
View the documentConclusion
View the documentNotes
close this folder10. State and Community Conflicts in Natural Resource Management in Kenya
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentBackground
View the documentAdministrative Structure and State/Community Conflicts in Resource Management
View the documentDefinition and Administration of Trust Lands
View the documentThe Case of the Kaya Forests - Coastal (Mangrove) Forests
View the documentThe Loita Forest Case - Forest of The Lost Child (Entim e Naimina Enkiyio)
View the documentRecommendations
View the documentBibliography
View the documentNote
View the documentAnnex I. Chapter IX of the Kenya Constitution
View the documentAnnex II. The Trust Land Act Cap. 288, Laws of Kenya
close this folder11. Links Between Environment and Agriculture in Africa
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentAgriculture's Effect on the Environment
View the documentEnvironment's Effect on Agriculture
View the documentStrategic Implications
close this folder12. Nontraditional Agricultural Exports in Africa: Rewards, Risks, and Opportunities for Change
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentThe Emergence of Nontraditional Agricultural Exports
View the documentReforming Policies and Institutions that Influence NTAEs
close this folderAssessing the Rewards and Risks of NTAEs
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentEconomic Promises
View the documentCurrent Challenges and Constraints
View the documentThe Environmental Impacts of NTAEs
View the documentThe Social Impacts of NTAEs
close this folderOpportunities and Needed Changes
View the document(introduction...)
View the document1. Integrate Environmental Concerns into NTAE Growth and Trade Policies
View the document2. Improve Information on and Monitoring of NTAE Impacts
View the document3. Develop Sustainable Production Practices for All Crops
View the document4. Focus on Smallholders and the Disenfranchised
View the documentNotes
close this folder13. Environmental Information Systems
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentThe Role of Environmental Information
View the documentThe Gambia Environmental Action Plan
View the documentRegional Cooperation
View the documentCapacity Building
View the documentSustainability
close this folder14. Africa and the Internet: Superhighway Checkpoints
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentCheckpoints and Consumer Costs
View the documentCheckpoints and Wholesale Costs
View the documentSocial Telecommunications Policy
View the documentPolicy Implications
View the documentReferences
View the documentNotes
close this folder15. Africa Data Sampler: Spatial Data for Policy-Makers
View the document(introduction...)
close this folderProject Background
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentInformation Availability for Africa
View the documentThe Value of Spatial Data for Africa
View the documentAfrica Data Sampler Development
View the documentDescription of the Africa Data Sampler
close this folderUses and Impacts of the Africa Data Sampler
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentIncreased Access to and Use of Digital Data
View the documentIncreased Production and Dissemination of Geo-referenced Data
View the documentIncreased Use of Digital Data for Policy- and Decision-Making
View the documentFuture Developments
View the documentAbout the authors
View the documentData tables and maps
close this folderSources and technical notes for data tables and associated maps
View the documentTable 1 - Economic Indicators
View the documentTable 2 - Development Aid and External Debt
View the documentTable 3 - Population Dynamics
View the documentTable 4 - Life Expectancy, Fertility and Mortality
View the documentTable 5 - Education
View the documentTable 6 - Health Care
View the documentTable 7 - Access to Safe Drinking Water and Sanitation
View the documentTable 8 - Energy Consumption
View the documentTable 9 - Land Use
View the documentTable 10 - Forested Land
View the documentTable 11 - Ratification of Major Conventions
View the documentTable 12 - Ratification of Other Environmental and Human Rights Conventions
close this folderTable 13 - Human Rights - Political and Civil Liberties
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentPolitical Rights Checklist
View the documentCivil Liberties Checklist
View the documentColor Maps Showing Physical features

(introduction...)

by Clement Dorm-Adzobu

The euphoria that accompanied political independence across Africa in the 1960s has mostly disappeared. In its place, a number of African nations are being haunted by the three-headed specter of political, economic, and ecological collapse. Some countries are being eviscerated as a result of bad government while others have become the victims of ethnic violence. Pictures of Rwandan refugee camps in eastern Zaire and the destruction of reserved forests and game parks in Uganda and Liberia as a result of "bush wars" and the near-total collapse of basic infrastructural services testify to the chaos that prevails in many African countries. Although the human cost of these tragedies has received substantial international attention, the staggering environmental degradation remains unquantified.

Science and technology can do little about the human determinants of these disasters. But just as people choose to inflict chaos and destruction on themselves and their environment, so too can they choose to protect that environment. What is needed is a realistic, demand-driven approach to natural resource management and the political will to make it happen.

The international community - spearheaded by the United Nations, lending and donor agencies, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) - has sensitized African governments to the importance of international conventions, conditionalities on credits and grants, and strategic plans. As a result, most African governments have now embarked on strategic planning in one form or another.

These developments are new, however, and commitment to environment and natural resources management as a national policy is relatively weak. While many national policies originate in constitutional provisions, references to environmental policy in the constitutions of African countries are rare, and, where they do exist, undefined. The new constitutions of Ghana, Uganda, and Kenya provide rare examples of references to environment, natural resources, and sustainable development.

Most of the integrated planning for social and economic development undertaken in Africa in the past four decades has been undertaken in connection with international donor support programs. For example, integrated rural development plans promoted by the World Bank in the 1960s became the focus of planning in many newly independent countries. Other countries prepared elaborate 5- or 7-year development plans emphasizing public-sector activities. All promoted economic "growth poles" in selected centers to encourage overall social and economic development.

In addition to these integrated planning activities, many African governments participated in numerous projects designed to solve problems in agriculture, forestry, and other sectors. Some of these plans were linked to international conventions that the countries had signed partly to attract international funding for plan implementation.

Generally speaking, these early initiatives strongly emphasized public-sector leadership and direction, and relied heavily on external funding for implementing programs and projects. Environmental considerations were not usually explicit in program and project activities, though some agricultural and forestry projects included environmental management components. As international concern rose in the 1980s, African governments began to put in place institutional, economic, political, and technical conditions to meet the challenge of sustainable development - meeting today's needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.

The primary strategic planning processes adopted in many African countries in recent years are National Conservation Strategies (NCSs), National Environmental Action Plans (NEAPs), Tropical Forestry Action Plans, and Plans of Action to Combat Desertification. One major imperative addressed by all these processes (and by NEAPs in particular) is the need for institutional mechanisms - governmental and non-governmental organizational structures - at national and subnational levels, with responsibility for general planning.

In 1993-94, the World Resources Institute (WRI) joined with the Natural Resources Policy Consultative Group for Africa (PCG) and the Network for Environment and Sustainable Development in Africa (NESDA) in a study of the status of the environmental management process in various African countries. The main goal of the study was to determine the extent to which long-term strategic planning processes have addressed the short-term problems resulting from the lack of a coherent national and subnational institutional framework and the absence of an implementable agenda on complex, cross-cutting environmental issues.

The term "institutional framework" is used here to refer to formal and informal organizational structures that existed in each country before the strategic planning process was introduced and to the structures that were recommended, created, or reconstituted to formulate and execute approved plans and strategies.

In this study, institutional issues were identified as a major constraint in preparing and implementing national strategic plans. In many instances, the institutions responsible for environmental management before the strategic planning process began were essentially sector-based. They had a broad mandate to lead and coordinate cross-sectoral plan preparation and implementation. Only in a few countries. The Gambia, Ghana, Kenya, and Uganda, did national institutions provide the leadership required in planning.

Since the mid-1980s, it has become increasingly evident that the efficient implementation of development projects depends on the availability and strength of institutional structures and arrangements (Baum and Tolbert, 1987). Many funding agencies have, therefore, increased contributions to institutional development as part of aid packages. Strategic planning processes create opportunities to move from a sectoral to a cross-sectoral approach in planning and implementation, a goal that is achieved through the design of an effective institutional framework for coordinated, cross-sectoral environmental management. However, since traditional government structures based on sectoral ministries and departments are well entrenched in Africa, no model of this exists.

That said, building an effective environmental policy framework requires effective environmental institutions. They formulate and implement policy; carry out legislative reform; propose environmental programs and projects; advise and support political decision-making processes; set standards; collect data; evaluate the environmental consequences of policies, decisions, and projects; educate the public; and coordinate and support the work of government institutions, NGOs, and civil society. In light of the crucial role that institutions play in natural resource management, many African countries have become genuinely concerned with overcoming existing institutional capacity constraints and are increasingly addressing them when dealing with such cross-sectoral issues as environmental management.

Nine country case studies were undertaken as part of this work. The key issues identified in the studies are discussed in this chapter. Although every issue was noted in each study, the relevance varies with each country's perceptions and priorities. As a result, issues are not discussed in any particular order, nor are they mutually exclusive: close relationships can be discerned among several.