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close this bookOcean Governance: Sustainable Development of the Seas (UNU, 1994, 369 pages)
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View the documentNote to the reader from UNU
close this folderPreface
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close this folderEditor's introduction
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View the documentReport on the conference
View the documentReports from the UN system
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close this folderConclusions and recommendations
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View the documentI. General
View the documentII National
View the documentIII Regional
View the documentIV Global
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close this folderOpening addresses
View the documentH.E. Dr Mário Soares, president of the republic of Portugal
View the documentMr Maurice strong, UNEP (Dr Alicia Barcena, UNCED, on behalf of Mr Strong)
View the documentDr Joseph Warioba, Tanzania
close this folderPart I: The existing framework for ocean governance
close this folderThe united nations convention on the law of the sea: sustainable development and institutional implications
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View the documentI. Introduction
View the documentII. The 1982 un convention on the law of the sea
View the documentIII. The convention's new institutions: the international seabed authority and the enterprise
View the documentIV. Legislative competence
View the documentV. Coordination of marine resource institution
View the documentVI. Conclusion
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close this folderExisting institutional framework and mechanisms
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View the documentCooperation and coordination among institutions
View the documentMain existing institutions and mechanisms for cooperation and coordination
close this folderThe significance and cost of ratification of the law of the sea convention 1982
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View the documentSignificance and urgency of ratification
View the documentFinancial obligations and cost of ratification
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close this folderThe role of indigenous peoples in ocean governance
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View the documentSharing the ocean's bounty in a spirit of kinship and harmony
View the documentTraditional native approaches to ocean governance
View the documentThe pursuit of ocean claims
View the documentInternational recognition of the rights of indigenous peoples
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close this folderPart II: Ocean governance: National level
close this folderNew structures for decision-making in integrated ocean policy
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View the documentIntroduction
View the documentI. Major institutional problems
View the documentII. National experiences in institution building
View the documentIII. Institution building for integrated ocean management
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close this folderEnvironmental accounting and valuation in the marine sector
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View the documentI. Introduction and need for improved environmental valuation
View the documentII. Classification of economic values and description of valuation techniques
View the documentIII. Practical application of techniques for valuing marine resources
View the documentIV. Conclusions and recommendations
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close this folderAddendum: A reaction from Max Börlin
View the document1. The need for environmental accounting
View the document2. Physical accounting in the marine sector
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View the document4. Environmental accounting at national level
View the document5. Environmental accounting beyond the national level
View the document6. Conclusions and recommendations
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close this folderNational case-studies: India and Japan
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View the documentNational institutions of governance in marine affairs of India (Krishan Saigal)
View the documentAnnex
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View the documentSome observations on mechanisms for decision-making and the execution of an integrated ocean policy in Japan (Tsutomu Fuse)
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close this folderPart III: Ocean governance: Regional level
close this folderThe regional seas programme - Integrating environment and development: The next phase
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View the documentIntroduction
View the documentThe regional seas programme of UNEP
View the documentThe mediterranean action plan
View the documentThe next phase
close this folderFisheries efficiency, resources conservation effectiveness, and institutional innovations
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View the documentIntroduction
View the documentEnd of the extensification stage: relation between scarcity, value, and property
View the documentRegulating the production function
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close this folderRegional cooperation in nonliving resources: Joint management zones
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentConcept of joint development and management of zones
View the documentLegal regime of joint development and management zones
View the documentOcean boundaries and joint development zones
View the documentThe expanding role of joint zones: a conclusion
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close this folderRegional centres for marine science and technology
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View the documentIntroduction
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close this folderRegional cooperation in marine sciences
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View the document1. Background
View the document2. Need for marine research
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View the document4. Major phases of the development of regional cooperation
View the document5. Some experiences
View the document6. Looking ahead
close this folderRegional case-studies: The Baltic Sea, and Indian Ocean
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View the documentRegional cooperation in science: the Helsinki convention for the Baltic (Nikolaus Gelpke)
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View the documentThe Indian Ocean Marine Affairs Cooperation (IOMAC) (Hiran W. Jayewardene)
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close this folderPart IV: Ocean governance: Global level
close this folderOcean governance and the global picture
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View the documentI. Ocean problems are global problems
View the documentII. The common heritage of mankind
View the documentIII. The common heritage of mankind and four other problem areas
View the documentIV. Global governance and the four problem areas
View the documentV. Conclusions
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close this folderThe competent international organizations: Internal and external changes
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View the documentInternal changes
View the documentExternal changes
View the documentMethods of promoting and encouraging the needed changes: (internal and external)
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close this folderInformation and communication on the oceans
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View the documentFunctional segments related to ocean governance
View the documentVehicles of communication
View the documentAn imperative about communication
View the documentIdeas for better communication
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close this folderCollective security and the changing role of navies
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View the documentIntroduction
View the documentNavies of the developing world
View the documentThe law of the sea and changing naval missions
View the documentMedium power and superpower navies
View the documentChanging naval functions
View the documentAn optimistic future
View the documentConclusion
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close this folderOcean governance and development: The question of financing
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentThe present situation
View the documentSpecific proposals
View the documentThe global commons: disputed and encroached areas
View the documentInstitutional arrangements for financing
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close this folderAn ocean assembly
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View the documentIntroduction
View the documentCharacteristics of the present state of ocean governance
View the documentThe evolving idea of a global ocean forum
View the documentThe concept of an ocean assembly
View the documentPowers and functions
View the documentMembership, structure, and procedure
View the documentConclusion
close this folderAnnexes
View the documentHighlights of reports from united nations organizations: ocean governance -institutional mechanisms for sustainable development in the oceans
close this folderPacem in Maribus XIX - Background paper
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentThe national level
View the documentThe regional level
View the documentConclusion
View the documentNotes
View the documentPIM XIX honorary committee
View the documentContributors
View the documentOther titles of interest

(introduction...)

Elisabeth Mann Borgese

The lapse of time since the staging of Pacem in Maribus XIX provides an opportunity for assessing the results of the conference in a somewhat more historic perspective.

These have been turbulent years of dramatic change in the international system, wrought by apparently conflicting, but in reality probably complementary trends of intranational disintegration and international integration, causing displacements, and untold human sufferings and deaths.

Environmental concerns reached an apex in the Rio Conference on Environment and Development of 1992, but have been on the decline since, under the impact of economic recession and turmoil and crisis management in too many places.

The real integration of environment and development concerns has not yet been achieved in people's minds or reflected in institutions, whether national or international. The task is still ahead of us. Pacem in Maribus XIX was intended to, and we feel, succeeded in, laying the foundations for our subsequent efforts, articulated in Pacem in Maribus XX and XXI.

Looking at the institutional evolution analysed by Pacem in Maribus XIX, PIM XX began to look at the wider applicability of the basic principles of the Law of the Sea Convention to sustainable development in general. Are there lessons to be learned from the ocean experience for the governance of other global, regional, and national issues? That the oceans are our great laboratory for the making of a new international order, has been a motto of the IOI since its very beginning over two decades ago.

Pacem in Maribus XXI is devoted to the implementation of sustainable development at the regional level which, it would appear, is the most important one in the whole global system of governance. A great deal of new thinking is needed to bring the Regional Seas Programme up from a still sectoral approach limited to the protection of the environment to an integrated approach covering ocean development together with the protection of the environment (horizontal integration) and to articulate the proper linkages between coastal management and national regimes on the one hand, and the emerging new structures at the level of the United Nations, on the other.

An informal meeting on "Agenda 21 for the Mediterranean" was held in Malta on 11-13 February 1993. Among the many facets of the new tasks this Agenda imposes, the meeting dealt explicitly with the institutional implications of moving the Mediterranean Action Plan and its institutional framework in the Barcelona Convention from "Stockholm" to "post-Rio."

Serious thought should be given to creating a regional Mediterranean United Nations entity that could be inspired and regulated, perhaps in its initial phases, from and through an expanded Barcelona Convention with terms of reference encompassing not only environment but social and economic interactions that will promote a process of sustainable development in the Mediterranean Region.1

With the Barcelona Convention of 1976 and its Plan of Action and Protocols, the Mediterranean nations have been leaders in regional cooperation in the protection of the environment. They could now take the lead in shaping the new and coming phase of evolution of the regional seas programme. The Malta-based International Ocean Institute hopes to play its role in this process, and, it would seem, has laid a sound basis for this new work in Pacem in Maribus XIX.

"Governance in the twenty-first century" has become a widely and intensely discussed subject. The Club of Rome is studying it. The United Nations University is fostering projects on the subject. There is a spate of new publications on the concept of the Common Heritage of Mankind, from Ph.D dissertations2 to lecture series3 to new books4.

New thinking on sustainable development, and new thinking on the Common Heritage concept are drawing closer together. Since the publication of Our Common Future,5 it is becoming clearer to more people that sustainable development is simply not attainable without some reconceptualization of traditional concepts of ownership and sovereignty. To put it more bluntly: sustainable development must be based on the concept of the common heritage of mankind, which integrates development and environment, together with disarmament (reservation for peaceful purposes).

Since ideas and ideals do not work in a vacuum, but only if and when they coincide with economic interests, it is well to remember that in any case, sovereignty is not what it used to be, in our age of globalized production, banking systems, and the information and communication revolution, and that "ownership" is no longer a key factor in these systems, ever since the days of James Burnham's Managerial Revolution.6

In the meantime, the Rio Conference on Environment and Development has begun to make its impact on the restructuring of the United Nations system. A whole new division has been added to take care of sustainable development: a Commission for Sustainable Development (CSD) within the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations; a Secretariat headed by a new Under-Secretary-General, and mechanisms for integrating the policies of all the specialized agencies involved have been strengthened in the Administrative Committee for Coordination (ACC) and its Inter-Agency Committee.

Whether the CSD will have the clout to cope effectively with the enormous issues of sustainable development and the implementation of Agenda 21 will depend, on the one hand, on the success or failure of restructuring and revitalizing the ECOSOC as a whole, and, on the other, on the strength of the leadership of CSD's own "High-Level Segment," that is, a meeting of Ministers, associated annually with the Commission and aspiring to a "High Political Profile" and a decision-making function. This might be seminal. This might be the beginning of something new.

Chapter 17 of Agenda 21, dealing with sustainable ocean development probably the strongest of all the chapters - is the link between the UNCED and the UNCLOS processes. Sustainable ocean development is a crucial part of the whole agenda. It cannot be implemented without the implementation of the Law of the Sea Convention which provides the necessary jurisdictional framework, the enforcement power and the dispute settlement system. The Law of the Sea Convention comes into force in November 1994, but the linkage between the CSD and the institutions emerging from the UNCLOS process, at global, regional, and national levels, is not yet clearly defined. There is a lot of work to be done.

It would appear that Pacem in Maribus XIX "holds water." It certainly has made its contribution to the preparation of UNCED and Chapter 17 of Agenda 21. As part of the more free-wheeling and unconstrained NGO sector, it could raise its sights over a somewhat longer term and wider horizon than governments can. But the developments of the last two years would seem to indicate that we are on the right track. From now on, the UNCLOS and the UNCED processes will evolve together, and they will largely determine the restructuring of the United Nations system and the emergence of a new world order. The NGO community will play an increasingly important role in this process and must throw all its weight into the effort to keep supranational integration ahead of, or in balance with intranational disintegration and to enhance sustainable development and comprehensive security intranationally and internationally, regionally, and globally. Pacem in Maribus hopes to remain in the avant-garde of this effort.