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close this bookAgroforestry In-service Training: A Training Aid for Asia & the Pacific Islands (Peace Corps, 1984)
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Day three

0800 - 1000 hrs.

NITROGEN FIXING TREES (NFT): THEIR ROLE IN AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS - POTENTIAL BENEFITS AND LIMITATIONS

Objective:

The participants will be able to define Nitrogen Fixing Trees and identify certain genera and species of the best potential NFTs. They will also be able to explain to farmers, the advantages and disadvantages of utilizing NFT species in their fields in agroforestry systems.

Procedure: Lecture should include:

· Sources of nitrogen and how it is introduced into the soil (atmospheric, biological and non-biological sources).

· The effect of erosion on the soil and how NFTs can help prevent erosion while at the same time improving the nutrient content of the soil.

· Taxonomy of NFTs and the three subfamilies of legumes: Caesalpinioideae, Mimosoideae, Papilionoideae.

· The nonleguminous tree genera that fix nitrogen, principally, Alnus and Casuarina.

· The many uses of NFTs species e.g., fuelwood, fodder, timber, ornamentation, etc.

· The advantages and disadvantages of fast growing NFTs.

Resources:

Handout: Nitrogen-Fixing Tree Resources: Potentials and Limitations. By J.L. Brewbaker, R. Van Den Beldt and K. MacDicken.

DAY THREE

1015 - 1200 hrs.

NITROGEN FIXING TREES. SPECIES SELECTION AND REGENERATION

Objective:

The participants will understand the importance and methodology of species selection. They will be able to propogate NFTs by various methods and understand proper management of seedlings both in the nursery and on plantations.

Procedure: Lecture should include:

· The methodology of proper species selection; environmental requirements, community needs and purpose of planting.

· Seed selection and preparation.

· Different methods of propagation; nursery (both in containers and bare root), vegetative propagation, and direct seeding.

· Nursery management and the use of bacterium and rizobium.

· The importance of weed control and the nutrient requirements of NFTs in plantation management.

1325 - 1500 hrs.

AGROFORESTRY PROJECT PLANNING

Objective:

The participants will have a working understanding of the "systems" approach to planning.

Procedure: Lecture should include:

· Definition of a system: "a whole which consists of component parts that are interdependent and interacting such that a change in one component results in a chain of reactions which results in changes in the other components and in the whole".

· Definition of planning: "the careful process of identifying and selecting the best alternative means for achieving a set of objectives and goals".

· Steps in systems planning (emphasis should be made that throughout the planning process, members of the community participating in the project should be included in each step):

a) Identify goals and objectives,

b) determine problems and constraints,

c) identify all possible options for achieving goals,

d) narrow options down to the practical and practicable,

e) using technical, economic and social data gathered within a community; compare remaining options,

f) select with the community the best option.

· Emphasize the importance of looking at existing traditional agroforestry systems when selecting final project plan.

· Participants should be reminded that agroforestry is an option, it is not a panacea.

Resources:

Handout: New Directions in Agroforestry: The Potential of Tropical Legume Trees; Initial Tasks in Agroforestry Projects. By Dr. Napoleon Vergara.

DAY THREE

1515 - 1715 hrs.

AGRICULTURAL CROPS IN AGROFORESTRY

Objective:

The participants will be able to select compatible food, fodder and tree crops to best fit expressed needs of community and growing conditions of the area. They will have a general technical understanding of the production of food crops.

NOTE

The actual planning process of selecting the appropriate components in an agroforestry plan has already been discussed. This session is focused more on the technical aspect of food crops production. Lecture should be delivered by an agronomist.

Procedure:

Lecture should include:

· How to develop a management plan for agricultural crops and how it relates to and complements the management plan of tree crops (i.e., farmer is more sensitive to weeding food crops than tree crops and will therefore indirectly weed tree crops when weeding food crops).

· A discussion of different crop characteristics that should be taken into consideration when planning combinations (e.g., shade tolerance, rooting depth, rate of growth, height at maturity, nutrient requirements [nutrient producer or consumer], watering needs).

· Emphasis should be made again that final selection process should be heavily geared towards the expressed needs and eating habits of the community.

1715 - 1745

REVIEW & PROCESSING