|Carbon Counts: Estimating Climate Change Mitigation in Forestry Projects (WRI, 1997, 32 pages)|
1. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Climate Change 1995: The Science of Climate Change, Summary for Policy Makers, Bert Bolin, John Houghton, and L. Gylvan Meira Filho, eds. (Rome, December 1995).
2. Paul Faeth, Mark C. Trexler, and Diana Page, Sustainable Forestry as a Response to Global Warming: A Central American Perspective, Report of a workshop held in Guatemala City. (Washington, D.C.: World Resources Institute, 1991). Paul Faeth, Cheryl Cort, and Robert Livernash, Evaluating the Carbon Sequestration Benefits of Forestry Projects in Developing Countries (Washington D.C.: World Resources Institute, 1994). Mark C. Trexler, Minding the Carbon Store: Weighing U.S. Forestry Strategies to Slow Global Warming (Washington D.C.: World Resources Institute, 1991). Mark C. Trexler and Christine Haugen, Keeping It Green: Tropical Forestry Opportunities for Mitigating Climate Change (Washington D.C.: World Resources Institute, 1995). Paul Faeth and Paige Brown, Land Use and Carbon Sequestration (LUCS) Model and Manual,(Washington, D.C.: World Resources Institute, 1997).
3. United Nations Non-Governmental Liaison Service, Environment & Development File Treaty Series vol. 1 no. 7. (New York, November 1995).
4. United Nations General Assembly, "United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change," A/AC.237/18 (Part II)/Add I and A/AC.237/18 (Part I/Add. 1/Corr. 1) (New York, 1992).
5. Sierra Club and Sierra Club of Canada, Risky Business: Why Joint Implementation is the Wrong Approach to Global Warming Policy (Washington D.C.: Sierra Club, 1995). Foundation Joint Implementation Network, "JI: Progress at INC XI" Joint Implementation Quarterly vol. 1, no. 0 (The Netherlands, Spring 1995).
6. U.S. Department of Energy, Sector-Specific Issues and Reporting Methodologies Supporting the General Guidelines for the Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases under Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Forestry Sector. (May 31, 1994).
7. U.S. Department of Energy, The Greenhouse Gas Volunteer, vol. 1, no. 1, (Washington D.C.: October 1995).
8. Forests Absorbing Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Annual Report, (Arnhem, Netherlands, 1993).
9. G.J. Nabuurs and G.M.J. Mohren, Carbon Fixation through Forestation Activities Commissioned by the Foundation FACE, IBN Research Report 93/4, (The Netherlands, 1993).
10. John Grace et al., "Carbon Dioxide Uptake by an Undisturbed Tropical Rain Forest in Southwest Amazonia 1992 to 1993," Science, vol. 270, (November, 3 1995): 778-80.
11. Alice LeBlanc, "Joint Implementation and the Development of an Emissions Trading System for Greenhouse Gases." (Paper presented at the Fourth Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee for a Framework Convention on Climate Change, Environmental Defense Fund. Switzerland 1991). Pamela Wexler, Irving Mintzer, Alan Miller, and Dennis Eoff, Joint Implementation: Institutional Options and Implications. (Maryland: Center for Global Change, University of Maryland, 1994).
12. John Kinsman, conversation with Edison Electric Institute. (Washington D.C., 3 March 1996).
13. Julian Evans, Plantation Forestry in the Tropics, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1982).
14. We have narrowed the discussion of parameters to those related to policy rather than technical questions. In many cases, technical matters, such as estimating ranges of the appropriate biomass for a given forest classification, are best dealt with on a site-specific basis. Instead, we have chosen to focus on broader, cross-cutting parameter issues that apply to a spectrum of projects.
15. Nalin Kishor and Luis Constantino, "Sustainable Forestry: Can it Compete?" Finance and Development (December 1994): 36-39.
16. Ted S. Vinson, Tatyana Kolchugina, and Kenneth Andrasko, "Workplan for Project on Carbon Offset Credits from Russian Forests, Saratov Afforestation Project." Assistance ID Number CR-821578-01-0, 1993.
17. Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy, National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine, Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming (Washington D.C., National Academy Press, 1991).
18. U.S. Department of State, Guidelines for a United States Initiative on Joint Implementation Project Proposal June 1, 1994, Federal Register. U.S. Department of Energy, General Guidelines for Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases under Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Public Review Draft.
19. United Nations Development Programme, "Project Document: Community Based Rangeland Rehabilitation for Carbon Sequestration and Biodiversity." (New York, 1994).
20. Nels Johnson and Bruce Cabarle, Surviving the Cut: Natural Forest Management in the Humid Tropics (Washington D.C.: World Resources Institute, 1993).
21. Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñanza, Olafo Project Summary.
22. FUNDECOR, CARFIX Project Proposal for the Edison Electric Institute (Costa Rica, 1995).
23. R.A. Sedjo, "Local Logging: Global Effects," Journal of Forestry, vol. 39, No. 7 (April 1995): 25-8.
24. Robert Repetto and Malcolm Gillis, eds., Public Policies and the Misuse of Forest Resources (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988). Mikael Grut, John A. Gray, and Nicolas Egli, Forest Pricing and Concession Policies: Managing the High Forests of West and Central Africa, Technical Paper 143 (Washington D.C.: The World Bank, 1991).
25. Michelle Pinard et al., "Creating Timber Harvest Guidelines for a Reduced-Impact Logging Project in Malaysia," Journal of Forestry (October 1995): 41-5.
27. Nels Johnson and Bruce Cabarle, Surviving the Cut. Pinard et al., "Creating Timber Harvest Guidelines".
28. Faeth, Evaluating the Carbon Sequestration Benefits.
29. Robert N. Stavins, The Costs of Carbon Sequestration: A Revealed Preference Approach, CSIA Discussion Paper 95-06 (Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, 1995).
30. Nigel Sizer, Opportunities to Save and Sustainably Use the World's Forests Through International Cooperation (Washington, D.C.: World Resources Institute, 1994).
31. Kishor, Sustainable Forestry, Note 15.
32. Jack K. Winjum, Robert K. Dixon, and Paul E. Schroeder, "Estimating the Global Potential of Forest and Agroforest Management Practices to Sequester Carbon," Natural Sinks of CO2,. Joe Wisniewski and Ariel Lugo, eds. (The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1992). "Focus Report: How Much Can We Rely on Forests for Carbon Sequestration?" Global Environmental Change Report, vol. 7, no. 22 (November 1995): 1-3.
World Resources Institute
1709 New York Avenue, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20006, U.S.A.
WRI's Board of Directors:
Maurice F. Strong
John H. Adams
Robert O. Blake
Robert N. Burt
David T. Buzzelli
Michael R. Deland
Sylvia A. Earle
Alice F. Emerson
William M. Haney, III
Cynthia R. Helms
Jeffrey T. Leeds
Thomas E. Lovejoy
C. Payne Lucas
Robert S. McNamara
William F. Martin
Ronald L. Olson
Florence T. Robinson
Roger W. Sant
James Gustave Speth
Mostafa K. Tolba
Victor L. Urquidi
J. Alan Brewster
Senior Vice President
Walter V. Reid
Vice President for Program
Donna W. Wise
Vice President for Policy Affairs
Vice President and Senior Economist
Thomas H. Fox
Kenton R. Miller
Vice President and Director of Biological Resources and Institutions
The World Resources Institute (WRI) is an independent center for policy research and technical assistance on global environmental and development issues. WRI's mission is to move human society to live in ways that protect Earth's environment and its capacity to provide for the needs and aspirations of current and future generations.
Because people are inspired by ideas, empowered by knowledge, and moved to change by greater understanding, the Institute provides - and helps other institutions provide - objective information and practical proposals for policy and institutional change that will foster environmentally sound, socially equitable development. WRI's particular concerns are with globally significant environmental problems and their interaction with economic development and social equity at all levels.
The Institute's current areas of work include economics, forests, biodiversity, climate change, energy, sustainable agriculture, resource and environmental information, trade, technology, national strategies for environmental and resource management, business liaison, and human health.
In all of its policy research and work with institutions, WRI tries to build bridges between ideas and action, meshing the insights of scientific research, economic and institutional analyses, and practical experience with the need for open and participatory decision-making.
World Resources Institute
1709 New York Avenue, N.W.
Washington, DC 20006, U.S.A.