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close this bookEnvironmental Education in the Schools (Peace Corps, 1993)
close this folderActivities, activities and more activities
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentUsing the senses
View the documentAdopt-a-tree
View the documentDuplication
View the documentMusic/rap/dance/drama
View the documentGarbage shuffle
View the documentThe rain forest revue
View the documentThe all new water review
View the documentOriginal skit
View the documentBotswana adaptation
View the documentA conservation drama - Trouble in Tikonkowo
View the documentThe awful eight
View the documentRole plays and other simulations
View the documentThe commons dilemma
View the documentKey mangrove: A system in conflict
View the documentChange in a mangrove ecosystem
View the documentKey mangrove: A conflict of interests
View the documentPoints of view
View the documentMining on the moon
View the documentMining on the moon: Part 1
View the documentMining on the moon: Part 2
View the documentThe reading and writing connection
View the documentFolk stories
View the documentSelected quotes
View the documentA heated controversy
View the documentA heated controversy: Part 1
View the documentA heated controversy: Part 2
View the documentAn environmental education tool - The creative journal
View the documentCubatao: New life in the Valley of Death
View the documentA letter from the village health worker - Clean water for elemit
View the documentLife without oil
View the documentPoetry
View the documentAway with waste!
View the documentAway on the bay
View the documentPicture poetry
View the documentShades of meaning
View the documentPoetry trail
View the documentPoetry trail activity sheet
View the documentCartoons, fantasy, and creative
View the documentThe rare scare
View the documentCartoons and headlines
View the documentHoley ozone!
View the documentGuided imagery
View the documentFlight of fantasy
View the documentRiparian retreat
View the documentWater wings
View the documentDemonstrations
View the documentOur watery world
View the documentKeep on truckin'
View the documentHow do polyps build reefs?
View the documentInvestigations and experiments
View the documentAcid tests
View the documentAcid demonstrations: Part I
View the documentAcid demonstrations: Part II
View the documentAcid test follow-up
View the documentHow can an oil spill be cleaned up?
View the documentThe case for case studies
View the documentAre we creating deserts? - The Sahel famine
View the documentStudent information - Famine in the Sahel: A case study
View the documentDesertification
View the documentSustainable development
View the documentDefining sustainable development: Part 1
View the documentDefining sustainable development: Part 2
View the documentCase study: United States: Part 3
View the documentCase study: Thailand: Part 4
View the documentCase study: Tanzania: Part 5
View the documentMoral dilemmas
View the documentThe flying foxes of Samoa
View the documentHarry Carter's grain company
View the documentScenario: Harry Carter's grain company: Part 1
View the documentScenario: Harry Carter's grain company: Part 2
View the documentScenario: Harry Carter's grain company: Part 3
View the documentHard choices
View the documentStarving nation
View the documentConcept mapping and webbing
View the documentAqua words
View the documentInfusion activity for environmental health
View the documentIssue webbing
View the documentField trips
View the documentAt the dump and postcards from the field
View the documentThe garbage dump field trip worksheet
View the documentSeaside adventure
View the documentDebates
View the documentTough choices
View the documentThe issues
View the documentSurveys
View the documentGlass and metal waste questionnaire
View the documentModel questionnaire
View the documentData summary sheet
View the documentRivers through time
View the documentWhat do people think?
View the documentGames
View the documentPollution bingo
View the documentMammal know-it-all
View the documentMammal questions
View the documentBat and moth
View the documentBranching out: Bat math
View the documentThe urban explosion
View the documentFour urban activities
View the documentVandalism: Disordered communications
View the documentFlooded streets
View the documentGetting outside
View the documentExpanding sensory perception
View the documentWeather scavenger hunt
View the documentInsect bingo
View the documentResearch/guest speakers
View the documentDesert quest
View the documentValues and attitudes
View the documentRare bird eggs for sale
View the documentWhat would you do?
View the documentAgricultural practices (A)
View the documentAgricultural practices (B)
View the documentWhy save rain forests?
View the documentThinking about thinking skills
View the documentThe great swamp debate
View the documentGo with the flow
View the documentDragonfly pond
View the documentCooperative learning activities
View the documentJungle sleuths
View the documentAnswers to scenarios
View the documentSuper-sleuth scenarios: Part 1
View the documentSuper-sleuth scenarios: Part 2
View the documentWe can all be experts
View the documentExpert cards: Part 1
View the documentExpert cards: Part 2
View the documentRaters of the planet ECO
View the documentLiven up your classroom
View the documentA web on the wall
View the documentBuilding the bulletin board
View the documentMembers of the web
View the documentA look at four food chains
View the documentThe interdisciplinary connection
View the documentPollution pathways
View the documentTracking the radiation (day 2- day 10)
View the documentPollution pathways (A)
View the documentPollution pathways (B)
View the documentSizing up reserves
View the documentSizing up reserves (A)
View the documentScience/technology/society
View the documentChallenge technology
View the documentTechnology challenges
View the documentAdditional challenges (developed for the South Pacific)
View the documentThe ''good'' bacteria controversy
View the documentTaking action for the planet

Case study: Tanzania: Part 5

Tanzania, in southern Africa, with a population of about 27 million, is a poor country but one that has the natural resources to prosper. Tanzania's gross national product (GNP) per capita is a mere S120, compared to $1,170 in Thailand and S21,1000 in the United States.

Agriculture, which accounts for more than half the gross domestic product, is a top priority in the nation's development policy. About 90 percent of the work force is involved in agriculture. About 55 percent of the total land surface is potentially agricultural land, but only 5 percent is cultivated because of a lack of investments, a lack of fertilizer, and, in some areas, tsetse flies. Much of the land has a low and erratic rainfall. The leading export crop is coffee; other exports include cashew nuts, tobacco, tea, sisal, and cotton.

Tanzania, which includes the island of Zanzibar, is one of the least urbanized countries in the world. But, the country's growth rate 3.4 percent - is one of the world's highest; problems of overcrowding and inadequate housing, water supplies, sanitation, refuse collection, and transportation are common in Tanzanian cities and towns. Sixty to seventy percent of urban populations live in squatter settlements.

Tanzania has a widely dispersed population, but does not have an adequate transportation system of roads or railways to carry goods to market. In 1989, the World Bank launched a 5750 million program to improve highways.

The government has made enormous strides in health and education programs. Thirty years ago, literacy in Tanzania was 15 percent; by the 1980s, it had reached 92 percent. Primary school enrollment was 72 percent in 1988; secondary school enrollment was 3 percent. Almost half of the population is under age 15.

The fertility rate (about 71) is noticeably higher than that of other developing countries (4.0). As mentioned above, the population growth rate is one of the highest in the world Although Tanzania's infant mortality rate (158 per 1,000 births) is lower now than 30 years ago when it gained independence, it is still one of the highest in the world and considerably above other developing countries.

Tanzania's energy use per capita (14 gigajoules) is far below the United States (324 gigajoules) and even well below other developing countries. However, the country's very high population growth rate means that there will be a growing pressure on natural resources for subsistence and commercial purposes .

There is no comprehensive national environmental legislation or policy for Tanzania, and there are environmental problems in almost every part of the country. Although half of the country's land is suitable for grazing, 60 percent of this is infested with tsetse flies and thus, is not usable. Animals are concentrated in certain areas, leading to overgrazing, soil erosion, low productivity, and land degradation.

Trees are disappearing as more land is cleared for agricultural purposes. Urban growth has also led to deforestation around cities. And since the population depends almost entirely on wood for fuel, fuelwood gathering is causing serious deforestation.

Tanzania has substantial mineral resources in gold and phosphates and may have offshore oil reserves as well. Fishing is an important industry for Tanzania. Coral reefs near the country's narrow coastline are highly desirable areas for fishing as well as for tourism, but the use of dynamite by fishermen has damaged much of them.

Tanzania's wildlife resources include 11 national parks, 18 game preserves, and 48 controlled hunting areas. Building up the country's tourist industry could be a huge boost to the economy, but without a strong environmental policy, this could have devastating long-term effects.

Sources:

1. World Resources Institute in collaboration with the United Nations Environment Programme and the United Nations Development Programme, World Resources 1992-93 (Oxford University Press, New York, 1992).

2. The 1992 Information Please Environmental Almanac, compiled by the World Resources Institute (Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, 1991).


Figure 1 Gross National Product Per Capita for Tanzania and Developing Countries


Figure 2 Energy Consumption Per Capita for Tanzania and Developing Countries


Figure 3 Mortality of Children Under Age 5 for Tanzania and Developing Countries


Figure 4 Total Fertility Rate for Tanzania and Developing Countries