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close this bookThe Oceanic Circle - Governing the Seas as a Global Resource (UNU, 1998, 257 pages)
close this folder3. Ocean perspectives: economic
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentThe economic impact of global marine industries
View the documentFuturistic industries: quantifiable
View the documentOcean-related indicators
Open this folder and view contentsOngoing initiatives about ocean-related indicators
View the documentGaps in ocean-related indicators
View the documentConclusions
View the documentThe ethical dimension
View the documentPrinciples and guidelines for the economics of the Common Heritage for the twenty-first century
View the documentNotes


1. These numbers, however, will be "factored in" by prices charged for ocean transport.

2. This, too, should be included in the transport cost.

3. Wapner, 1997.

4. Glowka, 1996.

5. The World Conservation Union has estimated that the deep sea may be home to 10 million species.

6. Venezia and Holt, 1995.

7. Dillon, 1992.


9. See Englezos, 1993.

10. R. Costanza, R. d'Arge, M. van den Belt. "The value of the world's ecosystem services and natural capital." Nature. May 15, 1997, vol. 387, no. 6630, pp. 253-260.

11. Roush, 1997.

12. Giarini, 1987. Abstract in Giarini and Börlin, 1991.

13. Borgese, 1986.

14. Giarini, 1980.

15. UN, 1996.

16. UNDP, 1997; World Bank, 1997.

17. UNEP/DEIA/MR. 96-3. A core data working group (1996), six regional consultations held in 1996, and a model-based analysis supporting GEO-1, were preparatory initiatives of DEIA, UNEP's Division of Environmental Information and Assessment. Our following review is also based on: UNEP/UN System-wide Earthwatch Coordination, 1995; UN system-wide Earthwatch Programme Document. The mission of Earthwatch is to coordinate, harmonize and integrate observing, assessment and reporting activities across the UN system in order to provide environmental and appropriate socio-economic information for decision-making on sustainable development, including information on the pressures on, status of, and trends in key global resources, variables and processes in both natural and human systems and on the response to problems in these areas.

18. GESAMP, 1990. "The State of the Marine Environment." Regional Seas Reports and Studies No. 115. Nairobi: UNEP, p. 111.

19. UNEP, 1991.

20. UNEP, 1997.

21. For a detailed table from national and international systems for protection of natural areas, including separate data for marine and coastal protected areas, see the bi-annual World Resources of the World Resources Institute.

22. See also UNEP, 1995; The UNEP Biodiversity Programme and Implementation Strategy and UNEP, 1995; Global Biodiversity Assessment, an over-1,100-page report about the present state of knowledge, gaps in understanding, and areas where further research is needed.

23. UNEP, 1993. See also Giarini and Stahel, 1989.

24. UNEP, 1991.

25. Briguglio, 1995.

26. World Resources Institute, 1986.

27. UN, 1996.

28. UN Statistical Office, 1994.

29. Sheng, 1995, van Dieren (ed.), 1995.

30. UN Statistical Office, 1993.

31. Hammond, 1995.

32. De Groot, 1992.

33. Barde and Pearce (eds.), 1991.

34. UNEP/Earthwatch Coordination, 1995.

35. European Environment Agency, 1996.

36. Hammond, 1995.

37. Giarini, 1980; Giarini and Börlin, 1991.

38. UNDP, 1997.

39. Think, for example, of SEEA for external environmental costs and of the Human Development Report for wealth not covered by SNA.

40. UNEP, 1997: GEO-1, pp. 6-7.

41. Hammond, 1995, is of the same opinion.

42. Address:

43. "We tend today to analyse the US economy in industrial terms. Even though 50 per cent of employment, 67 per cent of GNP, 90 per cent of new jobs and much of the dynamics of the economy are in the service sector." John Reed, Chairman of Citicorp.

44. "Eurocentrism" of course includes "America-centrism" which, with its economization of life and globalization of economized life, is its apogee.

45. Sustainable Development: The Spiritual Dimension.

46. Sama Veda, 1462, Yajur Veda, 3.17. Both are available from Motilal Banarsidas, Delhi.

47. Today new, interesting theories are being developed in the West on the linkages between property, governance, and security. See Prins, 1998. Also Gray, 1993.

48. Anguttara Nikaya, note 13, V.177.

49. Holland, 1988, pp. 117-123.

50. Sachs, 1992.

51. E.g., Huq, 1985, p.68.

52. Ibid., pA2.

53. Quoted in Islam and Ecology, Khalid and O'Brien, eds. 1992, p.7.

54. See, for example, Lovelock, 1979.

55. See for example, Naqvi, 1995. For a contrary view see Ahmad, 1974.

56. See for example, Drucker, 1992, pp. 21-26.

57. The importance of the "discount factor" in the ongoing efforts to integrate "economy" and "ecology" in "sustainable development" is stressed increasingly by resource economists.

58. "Holistic" is about overcoming specialization. "Inclusive" is about overcoming specific interests.

59. Harlan Cleveland deals with the impact of the information revolution on intellectual property. Information is "shared," not "exchanged," he points out, and this explains "why, since information can't really by 'owned,' the phrase 'intellectual property' is a contradiction in terms." Cleveland, 1996. Sustainable ocean development requires technology cooperation on a large scale. Without the necessary technologies, poor countries will be unable to fulfil their new responsibilities. Current trends to reinforce patent and other intellectual property rights may complicate the issue. Thus the Biodiversity Convention states: "The Contracting Parties, recognizing that patents and other intellectual property rights may have an influence on the implementation of this Convention, shall cooperate in this regard subject to national legislation and international law in order to insure that such rights are supportive of and do not run counter to its objectives (Art. 16.5)." This means: "If there is a conflict between the requirements of sustainable development and established intellectual property rights, it is the former that will prevail.

Recently, the developer and owner of a major software programme, Richard Stallman, gave an interview to the International Herald Tribune (14 March, 1998) suggesting that software should be free and shared. "Our software is copyright, but we give the user per mission to give away copies and to make changes and publish a changed version ..."