|Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Non-Conventional Energy Technology (PACE, 1984)|
By NORBERT HARTHUN
Again and again there have been attempts to discover unknown field structures - to express it in quite a general way. There are theoretical and technical approaches concerned with measuring. We shall try to describe a new technique which may permit to prove that theory by means of presumptive evidence approaching step by step what we are looking for.
Nature has always furnished ideas and examples; e.g. there was no need of science to invent the raft having seen pieces of wood swim. Imitating the bird's way of flying, however, and designing the first aeroplanes (Otto Lilienthal 1891) were not that easy any more. Here it becomes evident that it was impossible and did not make much sense to imitate natural examples directly. Those natural examples rather served to imitiate a process of reflection and set off creative inspiration. Bionics makes systematic use of this procedure. Officially it was born on the occasion of the first "Bionics Symposium" in Dayton, Ohio, on September 13 - IS, 1960. Its subject indicating the direction to be followed was: "Living prototypes - the key to new technology". It is true, bionics deals with non-conventional projects being realised with the help of interdisciplinary methods, yet the conventional point of view has not been left behind altogether.
What is meant by that can be made clear with the example of cybernetics founded by N. Wiener (1948): Cybernetics is an interdisciplinary scheme of thinking whose logic pattern allows to seize and treat the essential aspects of individual disciplines by means of non-specific terms and to establish relations that can be expressed mathematically'. This coarse-meshed pattern is made up of the formal framework of rules belonging to the theory of control and information. On the other hand, it is not possible to solve any special problem because of the wide meshes of the pattern. The results taken from individual disciplines are thus examined from the point of view of the theory of control and information as to whether they comply with each other or not and as to new conclusions. Interdisciplinary methods and non-conventional points of view, but both combined with conventional projects.
In order to advance one step further we lay particular stress on wholistic aspects which are not very much taken care of by conventional disciplines. Furthermore, let us make courageous use of deduction by analogy as a cognitive means in spite of the danger of aberration. As we shall see, this method may result in new and most profitable formulations of questions, if used in a disciplined manner. I would like to call this "enlarged cybernetics" somewhat "comparative science" to avoid confusion. Comparative science might represent a means of a wholistic research of nature.
I would like to give a hint in this context: it is often worthwhile reading the original papers of famous scientists and researchers on the background of our modern knowledge. Lots of wholistic aspects have been crippled by successors due to a lack of understanding or they have got lost altogether - aspects that might lead us ahead today if we knew them. This also applies to statements of so-called scientific outsiders, who were very often trapped in an analogous way of thinking.
The following quotation may serve as an example of successful examination of sources, as it represents an excellent introduction to our first example2: Johannes Kepler clearly called the sun the source of motion (foes motuum) of our system of planets when formulating its three laws of form and motion. This viewpoint was completely suppressed by later authors. The way Kepler conceived this becomes apparent at another instance (works VII, pp. 747-748) he says: "The magnetic (that is to say the 'attractive', the author) force lies in the extremely large body of the sun whence it spreads out into the wide world and thus forces all planets, when attaining them, on the way the sun himself, as the origin of that force, rotates on".
This early conception gives a picture of the planetary system as a whole, being one with all of its parts. How scanty the sentence left over today without the above information: "The planets travel on ellipses in one focus of which there is the sun." Today we would deduce from Kepler's words that he was speaking of a field structure filling the entire planetary system, a field structure still unknown being responsible for the propulsion of the planets - among other things.
Another wholistic conception by Aristotle is known to us: he taught that the planets orbited the sun on spheres composed of imperishable ether8.
Based on both of these wholistic conceptions and on the information furnished by the contemporary physicist M. Bauer3 saying that the mean radii of the planetary orbits are graded in accordance with an exponential function (Fig. 1)
k = 0.52
n = number indicating the planets (Mercury - 0;...)
r = radius of the orbit of the planet (Venus - 1;...)
rme - radius of the orbit of Mercury
let us formulate the hypothesis of a static [standing - ed.] wave, which reminds of how Aristotle conceived the planetary system. We assume unknown static waves in the space between the sun ant the planets where the planets are places at the nodes ´. The number of the planet concerned equals the respective number of notes starting with Mercury (Fig. 2). In order to back this assumption the unknown wave has to fulfill one further condition: its velocity must have an exponential increase with its outward movement (away from the sun).
In this case the exponentially increasing distances between the "planetary spheres" are travelled in equal periods of time. On calculating the resonant frequency of this system of orbital shells of sun and planets you will be surprised: The duration of the vibration is about S minutes. Contemporary research has succeeded in measuring pulsations (sound waves) in the same range on the sun's surface.
Our next example originates from the famous poet and scientist Goethe whose wholistic view of the world has probably not yet been understood in all its significance. In connection with this theory of colors he establishes an order: the circle of colors. He mate a circular arrangement and assigned a value to the colors according to their influence on the human soul. He pretended that the interaction of two polarities produced something new. For instance: yellow and blue produce green. The following pair are the intensifications yellow red (from yellow) and blue red (from blue). Yellow red (-orange) and blue red (- violet) produce purple, the color of highest order.
Goethe didn't know anything about electromagnetic waves or the linear representation of the spectrum which we want to refer to now5. It can be seen immediately that Goethe considered the color "green" as the center of symmetry and the farther two colors symmetrically arranged to green were apart from each other in the spectrum, the higher the order of than combination (Fig. 3)!
According to Goethe those two electromagnetic signals belong together whose respective frequencies are symmetric to that of green light. This wholistic polarity is confirmed by contemporary scientific results6: Popp again proved according to Gurvitch the combination of ultraviolet and infrared radiation in biological tissue. In addition there is the result of a scientific experiment scientists haven't been able to explain so far, but in our eyes it is no longer as enigmatic as that: mice which were exposed to microwave radiation survived a dose of X-rays that otherwise would have been mortal for the calls of their bone marrow!
Let us talk about a remarkable structural pattern of the hydrogen atom as a third example of possible unknown field structures behind what is known today. The spectrum of emission of the hydrogen atom (again electromagnetic waves) allows conclusions about the structure of the atom's shell. The gradual evolution of the associated models is known to the expert. In this connection a new evaluation and interpretation' of the spectrum may be of some intererest: the harmonic sequence (1, 1/2; 1/3; 1/4 . . .) is of great importance in the field of vibrations and waves, and it has been found that it is also of great importance for concerning the structure of the hydrogen atom. The spectral lines correspond to energies, and the latter may be calculated by assuming the layers of the structure of a spherical capacitor for the shell structure.
The condition to be taken into consideration here is that the
radii of the concentric spheres must decrease towards the nucleus according to
the harmonic sequence (Fig. 4). Then the energy
(frequency) of the spectral lines is exactly equal to the differences of sphere surfaces.
This concept does not necessitate any clouds of charges and functions of distribution, but simple mathematics of static electricity. There is still the concept of an unknown flux involved in the notions of charge and displacement going back to the early days of electrical engineering, and the Balmer-formula for the spectral lines may be changed into:
where E1 is the energy of a charged sphere of radius r1. (Derivation of this equation follows.)
Seen in this light, energy is emitted in all directions (spheric symmetry) by the nucleus and penetrates the surrounding layers of the sphere.
This approach to the hydrogen spectrum may enable the experts concerned to develop a deeper understanding of energy than we have presently!
We have talked a lot about entities and structures. Structures are well-arranged systems carrying information, which is one basis of the cybernetic way of thinking. Applying this pattern of thinking to both notions of energy and physics, to potential and to kinetic energy, the question how to assign it to the notion of information arises.
Conventional conversion of energy is carried out by changing structures of a higher order into such of a lower one (e.g. combustion of fossil fuel), i.e. order is turned into chaos. Structures are destroyed, information inherent in the structures is demolished. Hence energetic effects can be obtained if (information-bearing) structures are at hand.
We call this phenomenon "potential energy". Not before these structures undergo a change (conventionally expressed a destruction) will there be energetic effects on their surroundings: in this case we speak of "kinetic energy".
On close consideration we notice that, be it microcosm or macrocosm, we always deal with moving particles of matter which - as may be presumed - at the same time interact with so far unknown fields. Briefly: Changes of structure or movement of matter respectively produce energetic effects. From hence arises the challenge for future technology to create energetic effects, too, by means of a build-up of structure and correct movement respectively which are thus helpful to mankind. This is the great chance of bringing forth a truly responsible technology helpful to life and not a destructive factor in the overall system of nature, but inaugurating a higher degree of order.
I'd like to thank my colleague F. Fiedler for his help in establishing the English version!
1. H. Teichmann
Der gegenwartige Stand der Kybernetik
Der Feramelde-lngenieur 32. Jahrg. (1978) Nr.1 S.1-29
2. Rudolf Lammel
Von Naturforschern und Naturgesetzen
Hesse und Becker Verlag; Leipzig 1927 S.80-83
3. Wilhelm M. Bauer
Geo- und Astrophysik
Selbstverlag 1975; Nonntaler Hauptstre.14; A-5020 Salzburg
4. Norbert Harthun
Sonne und Planeten in Resonanz - Zusammenhalt durch unbekannte Energiewelle?
Mensch und Technik - naturgemass 1981 H.3 S.83-91
5. Norbert Harthun
Der Mensch - Mass so marcher Dinge?
Die biologische Ordnung elektromagnetischer Signale
Kosmische Evolution 1979 H.2 S.41-45
6. F.A. Popp et al.
Urban und Schwarzenberg; Munchen-Wien-Baltimore 1979
7. Norbert Harthun
Die electrische Harmonie - Schichtung des Wasserstoffatoms
Mensch und Technik - naturgemass 1982 H.3 S.99-104
8. Hans Schavernoch
Die Harmonie der Spharen
Verl. K. Alber Freiburg; Munchen 1981
(3) in (1)
c = speed of light
n = m+ 1; m+2; m+3 ...
Ry = Rydberg-constant
ra = outer shell radius
ri = inner shell radius
me = electron mass (neutralized based on the Bohr model)
D = charge on the surface of conducting sphere (r1)
= Surface potential
= Difference between areas (ra and ri)
A1 - Area of sphere (r1)
E1 - Energy of the charged sphere (r1)