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close this bookForestry Training Manual: Inter-America Region (Peace Corps, 1986)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentAcknowledgements
View the documentTrainer guidelines
Open this folder and view contentsTraining program overview
View the documentForestry observation guide for site visit
Open this folder and view contentsGetting ready
View the documentConducting the training program
View the documentWeekly evaluation form
View the documentSession I - Welcome, expectations, and evaluation criteria
View the documentDaily schedule for technical training I
View the documentSession II - Special projects
View the documentSession III - The forest of the world, Peace Corps forestry goals, the individual volunteers' roles
View the documentSession IV - Language class
View the documentSession V - Record keeping
View the documentSession VI - Journal keeping and setting
View the documentSession VII - Flowers, seeds, the beginning
View the documentSession VIII - Spanish language class
View the documentSession IX - Non-verbal communication
View the documentSession X - Basic site selection, planning and layout of a nursery
View the documentSession XI - Spanish lesson
View the documentSession XII - Cultural values
View the documentSession XIII - Soil preparation, seed bed sowing, and reproduction by clippings
View the documentSession XIV - Spanish language
View the documentSession XV - Communication through illustration
View the documentSession XVI - Fertilizers, watering and containers
View the documentSession XVII - Spanish language
View the documentSession XVIII - Protection and record keeping
View the documentSession XIX - Individual interviews
View the documentWeekly evaluation form
View the documentSession XX - Planting trees
View the documentSession XXI - Spanish language session
View the documentSession XXII - Introduction to extension
View the documentSession XXIII - The principals of pruning and thinning learning how to make and use a diameter tape
View the documentSession XXIV - Spanish language
View the documentSession XXV - Volunteer's role as an extensionist
View the documentSession XXVI - Pacing, plane table, rustic transit and compass
View the documentSession XXVII - Spanish language
View the documentSession XVIII - Forestry extension
View the documentSession XXIX - Forest menstruation
View the documentSession XXX - Spanish language
View the documentSession XXXI - Working with groups as an extension worker
View the documentSession XXXII - Agro-forestry
View the documentSession XXXIII - Spanish language
View the documentSession XXXIV - Lesson plan and use of visual AIDS in teaching
View the documentSession XXXV - Small research projects
View the documentSession XXXVI - Individual interviews
View the documentSession XXXVII - Soils
View the documentSession XXXVIII - Spanish language
View the documentSession XXXIX - Community analysis introduction
View the documentSession XL - Soil erosion
View the documentSession XLI - Spanish language
View the documentSession XLII - Problem analysis
View the documentSession XLIII - Watershed management
View the documentSession XLIV - Spanish language
View the documentSession XLV - Review of expectations - Mid way
View the documentSession XLVI - Spanish language
View the documentSession XLVII - Species report
View the documentSession XLVIII - Forestry issues
View the documentSession XLIX - Spanish language
View the documentSession L - Field trip overview
View the documentSession LI - Ecology teams give presentations
View the documentSession LII - Individual interviews
View the documentSession LIII - Review of field trips
View the documentSession LIV - Project planning: Goal setting
View the documentSession LV - Spanish language
View the documentSession LVI - Resources
View the documentSession LVII - Compost heap. Insect collection. Light gaps
View the documentSession LVIII - Spanish language
View the documentSession LIX - Cultural shock - Are we ready for it?
View the documentSession LX - Grafting and fruit trees
View the documentSession LXI - Spanish language
View the documentSession LXII - Professional approaches to interaction with host country officials
View the documentSession LXIII - Final interviews
View the documentSession LXIV - Graduation

Session XVI - Fertilizers, watering and containers

Total Time: 4 hours


- To give information about fertilizers, watering and containers.
- Have trainees actually practice making paper containers and transplanting seedlings.
- Trainees finish soil preparation and possibly sow seed beds in vivero.
- Give out weekly evaluation forms.
- To review group process and have trainees give each other feedback.


This session once again will be a refresher for some participants but uniquely different ways and types of fertilizers used will hold interest. Containers used in Latin America differ significantly from North America. Practice in making containers and transplanting into containers -will he a new experience for most trainees. Trainees will continue work on vivero and give each other feedback on working together. Weekly evaluation forms will also be given out so that trainees can fill them out and bring them to their individual interviews (Session 18).


(1) Lecture on fertilizers, watering and containers.
(2) Making containers and transplanting seedlings into these containers.
(3) Soil preparation and sowing of seeds in vivero.


Flip charts, marker pens, tape, weekly evaluation forms, newspaper (for pot making), staplers, staples, potting soil, seedlings for transplanting into containers, seeds for vivero.

Exercise I - Lecture on Fertilizers, Watering and Containers

Total Time:

30 Minutes


At the beginning of this exercise technical trainer will take a few minutes to pass out weekly evaluation forms. He will then invite those for whom this lecture is a refresher to add pertinent information based on their experiences.




5 minutes

1. Technical trainer passes out weekly evaluation forms. He asks that participants have them filled out by next day in time for interviews and states that these are an important part of the feedback needed by trainers.

25 minutes

2. Technical trainer now gives the following lecture using an outline posted on newsprint.

Fertilizers (Fertilizante)

Work from soil sample. Trainer describes ways in which to take soil sample and quantity needed for each host country soil lab processing.

1. Inorganic (inorganico)

a. NPK
N = Nitrogen (nitrogeno)
P2O5 = Phosphoric Acid (acido fosforico asimable) X.44 = P
K2O = Potash (potasa soluable en agua) X.83 = K
Ratios 10 - 20 - 10

b. Urea

c. Ethers

1. ammonium sulfate
2. ammonium nitrate

2. Organic (Organico)

a. compost: good if done right
b. green manure

1. alfalfa (alfalfa)
2. peas (arvejas)
3. beans (frijoles)
4. cloves (trebol)

c. manures

1. usually low in phosphorus
2. best to mix in soil

3. Application

a. organic mix into soil
b. inorganic - mix into soil or sprinkle on:

1. 1st application
2. 2nd application after 6 weeks
3. do not fertilize during hardening off period (± final month before outplanting).


1. After sowing, "carefully" water heavily.
2. Generally, watering heavily every few days is better than watering lightly everyday.
3. "Look" at soil moisture.
4. In the last month, taper off watering to harden plants.



1. Paper*
2. Plastic bays
3. Clay pots
4. Better system

a. Direct seed into container

1. Advantages

a. root system remains intact,
b. has good soil.

2. Disadvantages

a. bulky to handle,
b. poor root development,
c. costly.

*Paper pots including labor is ½ the price of using plastic containers

Small Research Projects


Sameness: Try to keep all factors, that might influence the experiment the same. Examples of questions to ask about the experiment

Seed Experiment

a. Are the seeds that are being used from the same source?

Growth Experiment

b. Is the soil the same throughout the experimental site?

Planting Growing Experiment

c. Were all trees planted on the same day using the same methods, tools etc.?


Randomness: As a means of limiting the effects of unknown differences, experiment should be rayed out randomly.

a. Rice-Beans scatter on a grid,

b. Number from a hat,

c. Telephone book - last digits of numbers,

d. Random number generator.


What is it you are going to measure? How? When? With what?


Testing Hypothesis


Layout: A block design

a. Randomized blocks,

b. Buffer strips,

c. Replicates (generally 3 - 5 replications ),

d. Number.

Example: Species Trial

Problem: it is decided to test 7 different species to see it any grow and/or survive better than Pinus radiate.

Measurements to cake: (by year)

1. Survival: Note if trees are dead or alive.
2. Height Growth: Note height of each tree.

Exercise II - Making Containers

Total Time:

1 hour


This exercise gives trainees practical hands on experience in making paper containers and transplanting into them. If training is done at host country Ministry of Agriculture nursery, they will have a potting shed with all of the equipment needed. If not, a small potting shed can be created for the exercise.




20 minutes

1. Trainer or potting shed "jefe" demonstrates the making of newspaper cylinder. Trainer now makes 10 cylinders each.

40 minutes

2. Trainees take cylinders to potting shed where they are shown how to pack potting soil tightly and to transplant seedling into pots.

3. Trainer gives brief lecture on the advantages of paper pots.

Trainer's Note: It possible, you can get the nursery "jefe" to give all instructions in Spanish and oversee the trainees in this exercise. You will then only need to translate information that you may feel trainees are not understanding. This gives trainees the experience of working with a host country person.

Directions for making paper cylinder containers.

1. Take a standard size sheet of newspaper fold in half, then told in half again.
2. Roll folded paper around fingers to give cylindrical shape .
3. Staple top and bottom.
4. Roll over fingers to make cylinder.
5. Pack bottoms tightly with potting soil using tamping stick.
6. Transplant seedling packing soil tightly around roots, pack up to collar of seedling.

Exercise III - Soil Preparation & Seedling Sowing

Total Time: 2½ hours


This exercise is meant to he the last formal time period allotted for work on the trainees' vivero. However, if the weather and their own croup process does not allow for the final seedbed sowing, it is possible to finish on the next day.




5 minutes

1. Trainer starts with observation made by staff members as to how vivero groups Observations are listed on newsprint. have done while working together. Asks trainees to verify these observations.

30 minutes

2. Trainer asks vivero groups to come together and give each other feedback about:

- how they work together,

- how they feel about the amount of work others have done/not done,

- how they feel about the leadership in the group,

- how they feel they have worked with other vivero groups,

- how they feel about themselves as a group now,

10 minutes

3. Trainer asks group to call out adjectives that describe themselves and writes them on newsprint. Talks about the importance of feedback in the group process.

1 hour 45 minutes

4. Groups are now given instructions to finish vivero. Trainer asks who is keeping records but makes no comment on the answer. Trainers once again leave the vivero area, leaving seeds with trainees.