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close this bookForestry Training Manual: Inter-America Region (Peace Corps, 1986)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentAcknowledgements
View the documentTrainer guidelines
Open this folder and view contentsTraining program overview
View the documentForestry observation guide for site visit
Open this folder and view contentsGetting ready
View the documentConducting the training program
View the documentWeekly evaluation form
View the documentSession I - Welcome, expectations, and evaluation criteria
View the documentDaily schedule for technical training I
View the documentSession II - Special projects
View the documentSession III - The forest of the world, Peace Corps forestry goals, the individual volunteers' roles
View the documentSession IV - Language class
View the documentSession V - Record keeping
View the documentSession VI - Journal keeping and setting
View the documentSession VII - Flowers, seeds, the beginning
View the documentSession VIII - Spanish language class
View the documentSession IX - Non-verbal communication
View the documentSession X - Basic site selection, planning and layout of a nursery
View the documentSession XI - Spanish lesson
View the documentSession XII - Cultural values
View the documentSession XIII - Soil preparation, seed bed sowing, and reproduction by clippings
View the documentSession XIV - Spanish language
View the documentSession XV - Communication through illustration
View the documentSession XVI - Fertilizers, watering and containers
View the documentSession XVII - Spanish language
View the documentSession XVIII - Protection and record keeping
View the documentSession XIX - Individual interviews
View the documentWeekly evaluation form
View the documentSession XX - Planting trees
View the documentSession XXI - Spanish language session
View the documentSession XXII - Introduction to extension
View the documentSession XXIII - The principals of pruning and thinning learning how to make and use a diameter tape
View the documentSession XXIV - Spanish language
View the documentSession XXV - Volunteer's role as an extensionist
View the documentSession XXVI - Pacing, plane table, rustic transit and compass
View the documentSession XXVII - Spanish language
View the documentSession XVIII - Forestry extension
View the documentSession XXIX - Forest menstruation
View the documentSession XXX - Spanish language
View the documentSession XXXI - Working with groups as an extension worker
View the documentSession XXXII - Agro-forestry
View the documentSession XXXIII - Spanish language
View the documentSession XXXIV - Lesson plan and use of visual AIDS in teaching
View the documentSession XXXV - Small research projects
View the documentSession XXXVI - Individual interviews
View the documentSession XXXVII - Soils
View the documentSession XXXVIII - Spanish language
View the documentSession XXXIX - Community analysis introduction
View the documentSession XL - Soil erosion
View the documentSession XLI - Spanish language
View the documentSession XLII - Problem analysis
View the documentSession XLIII - Watershed management
View the documentSession XLIV - Spanish language
View the documentSession XLV - Review of expectations - Mid way
View the documentSession XLVI - Spanish language
View the documentSession XLVII - Species report
View the documentSession XLVIII - Forestry issues
View the documentSession XLIX - Spanish language
View the documentSession L - Field trip overview
View the documentSession LI - Ecology teams give presentations
View the documentSession LII - Individual interviews
View the documentSession LIII - Review of field trips
View the documentSession LIV - Project planning: Goal setting
View the documentSession LV - Spanish language
View the documentSession LVI - Resources
View the documentSession LVII - Compost heap. Insect collection. Light gaps
View the documentSession LVIII - Spanish language
View the documentSession LIX - Cultural shock - Are we ready for it?
View the documentSession LX - Grafting and fruit trees
View the documentSession LXI - Spanish language
View the documentSession LXII - Professional approaches to interaction with host country officials
View the documentSession LXIII - Final interviews
View the documentSession LXIV - Graduation

Session XXII - Introduction to extension

Total Time:

2 hours


- To introduce extension work.
- To give historical overview.
- To look at specific goals of extension.
- To begin the process of developing an extension agent.


Each trainee regardless of their job assignment will eventually become involved in forestry extension work. This session begins by giving the historical overview of extension work in North America; then goes into "Six Axioms of Forestry Extension."


1. Historical overview and some techniques used in the past. Lecture.
2. Six Axioms for forestry extension; small group discussions.


Flip charts, marker pens, tape.

Exercise II - Six Axioms of Forestry Extension

Total Time

1 hour 10 minutes


In this exercise participants become familiar with the basic rules of extension work. Since extension work is such an unstructured activity, the extension worker will find that there are long periods of time when he/she feels as if he/she is not doing anything and is tempted to do more; he/she may also wonder, from time to time, if what he/she is doing is actually advancing or retarding extension work in the community. In extension work the temperament and sensitivity of the worker influence to a large degree how effective the work will be.




30 minutes

1. The trainer posts on newsprint the following axioms and speaks about each one.

- The forestry extensionist should never do anything for people that they are able to do for themselves.

- The forestry extensionist should never encourage the use of resources from outside the community until all the resources within the community have been exhausted.

- The forestry extensionist should never try to organize people to deal with a need they don't themselves recognize (may have to educate first).

- The forestry extensionist's most important dedication must be to the sound local progress of his/her community.

- Forestry extension must be carried out from an understanding of the host culture and in terms of that culture.

- The forestry extensionist role in his/her community is transitory.

It is tempting to add a seventh axiom, which says that the above six should not be taken too seriously. If there is one single encompassing rule in extension work, it is that given the basic goals, the means ultimately are flexible - subject to variations according to specific conditions. The extensionist should understand the axioms of an extension worker well enough to follow them when possible and break them, if necessary.

20 minutes-small group
3 minutes-large group

2. Trainer now asks participants to break into groups of five and discuss ways in which they can be successful extension workers. Ideas are recorded on newsprint and presented to the entire group. The following are some examples that came out of our groups.

Ways to Be Successful Extension Workers

We are not alone
communication -contacts
know when to compromise
positive attitudes
know where to start
cultural sensitivity
technical competence
be objective
be aware of problems
don't push own
ideas keep it simple
be a Mr. Tree
work with counterpart
be a resource
be a good example
get along with officials
impart knowledge
follow up on what you do
do not spread yourself too thin
follow the six points of extension
be aware of external and internal resources
transfer a system
work with people
have a good reputation
help others make decisions; do not do it for them
build extension bridges
action speaks louder than words
maintain a sense of humor
quality vs. quantity (do a few things well)
be aware of group dynamics

5 minutes

3. Trainer now does summary of session: Emphasizing that trainees are becoming members of a historical tradition - extension.

Exercise I - Historical Overview and Some Techniques Used in the Past

Total Time:

40 minutes


During the introduction to extension it is important for trainees to understand that the extension movement has 100 years of history. Though it may be a new concept in developing countries it comes as a tried and true system for helping farmers. Experiences are shared to help trainees get a picture of an extension worker as one who must interact on a one to one basis in order to help a community develop.




Lecture on history of extension outline:

- 1862 Morrill Act - Land Grant Colleges

- 1887 Research - Experimentation

- 1914 Extension

- 1940 - 1950 - Good Neighbor Policy of Harry S. Truman, "Partners in Progress."

For extension to be most effective, it must achieve:


1. National concern to improve agrarian structures.
2. Rural population with high level of self esteem.
3. Active participation in significant development programs, i.e., agrarian.

Specific Goals of Extension:

1. Significant objectives - precise, measurable, realistic.
2. Appropriate image.
3. Power - legal, money, political.
4. Institutional mystique.
5. Internal efficiency.
6. Effective communication with public.
7. Coordination with other agencies.
8. Democratic procedures.

2. Be a Mr/Ms Tree. In order for people in a community to know you and why you are in the community you must identify yourself. Any opportunity which arises, you should give away a tree. Some examples are:

1. birthdays

2. thank you for any kindness

3. p.r. for yourself

4. christenings

5. just to be friendly

Trainer asks for suggestions from group at this point.

Trainer's Note: This concept really catches the imagination of the participants. If you know the story of "Johnny Appleseed," it fits in well here. Trainer makes point that in order for people to associate you with trees you must advertise. It is important to remind trainees that any trees given should be personal gifts, never use trees from nursery stock. This is also a good time for trainer to talk about their own experiences as extension agents or community development workers.