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close this bookForestry Training Manual: Inter-America Region (Peace Corps, 1986)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentAcknowledgements
View the documentTrainer guidelines
Open this folder and view contentsTraining program overview
View the documentForestry observation guide for site visit
Open this folder and view contentsGetting ready
View the documentConducting the training program
View the documentWeekly evaluation form
View the documentSession I - Welcome, expectations, and evaluation criteria
View the documentDaily schedule for technical training I
View the documentSession II - Special projects
View the documentSession III - The forest of the world, Peace Corps forestry goals, the individual volunteers' roles
View the documentSession IV - Language class
View the documentSession V - Record keeping
View the documentSession VI - Journal keeping and setting
View the documentSession VII - Flowers, seeds, the beginning
View the documentSession VIII - Spanish language class
View the documentSession IX - Non-verbal communication
View the documentSession X - Basic site selection, planning and layout of a nursery
View the documentSession XI - Spanish lesson
View the documentSession XII - Cultural values
View the documentSession XIII - Soil preparation, seed bed sowing, and reproduction by clippings
View the documentSession XIV - Spanish language
View the documentSession XV - Communication through illustration
View the documentSession XVI - Fertilizers, watering and containers
View the documentSession XVII - Spanish language
View the documentSession XVIII - Protection and record keeping
View the documentSession XIX - Individual interviews
View the documentWeekly evaluation form
View the documentSession XX - Planting trees
View the documentSession XXI - Spanish language session
View the documentSession XXII - Introduction to extension
View the documentSession XXIII - The principals of pruning and thinning learning how to make and use a diameter tape
View the documentSession XXIV - Spanish language
View the documentSession XXV - Volunteer's role as an extensionist
View the documentSession XXVI - Pacing, plane table, rustic transit and compass
View the documentSession XXVII - Spanish language
View the documentSession XVIII - Forestry extension
View the documentSession XXIX - Forest menstruation
View the documentSession XXX - Spanish language
View the documentSession XXXI - Working with groups as an extension worker
View the documentSession XXXII - Agro-forestry
View the documentSession XXXIII - Spanish language
View the documentSession XXXIV - Lesson plan and use of visual AIDS in teaching
View the documentSession XXXV - Small research projects
View the documentSession XXXVI - Individual interviews
View the documentSession XXXVII - Soils
View the documentSession XXXVIII - Spanish language
View the documentSession XXXIX - Community analysis introduction
View the documentSession XL - Soil erosion
View the documentSession XLI - Spanish language
View the documentSession XLII - Problem analysis
View the documentSession XLIII - Watershed management
View the documentSession XLIV - Spanish language
View the documentSession XLV - Review of expectations - Mid way
View the documentSession XLVI - Spanish language
View the documentSession XLVII - Species report
View the documentSession XLVIII - Forestry issues
View the documentSession XLIX - Spanish language
View the documentSession L - Field trip overview
View the documentSession LI - Ecology teams give presentations
View the documentSession LII - Individual interviews
View the documentSession LIII - Review of field trips
View the documentSession LIV - Project planning: Goal setting
View the documentSession LV - Spanish language
View the documentSession LVI - Resources
View the documentSession LVII - Compost heap. Insect collection. Light gaps
View the documentSession LVIII - Spanish language
View the documentSession LIX - Cultural shock - Are we ready for it?
View the documentSession LX - Grafting and fruit trees
View the documentSession LXI - Spanish language
View the documentSession LXII - Professional approaches to interaction with host country officials
View the documentSession LXIII - Final interviews
View the documentSession LXIV - Graduation

Session VII - Flowers, seeds, the beginning

Total Time:

1 hour


- To refresh the memories of the trainees about flowering cycles, pollination, seeds, seed germination, seed dispersal, basic seed storage and point out the lack of knowledge we have about seed germination and dispersal among many tropical species. To instruct the trainees in basic seed storage .

- Enable trainees to set up seed collection records.

- Conduct seed germination experiments.

- Look at small group process.


This session is a review of the flowering cycle and seeds from pollination to germination. It is necessary to start at. the beginning here as most trainees will have studied these cycles in North America and need to see the differences, particularly in tropical species. The trainees will also have "hands-on" experience in treating seeds (stratification and scarification) and setting up a simple experiment and keeping records.


1. Lecture on flowers & seeds
2. Germination experiment
3. Small group process


- flip charts, marker pens, tape
- 20 different varieties of seeds about 300 or 400 in all
- small plastic hays
- blotter paper or newspaper

Exercise I

Flowers & Seeds

Total time - 1 hour


Many of the participants will have learned in North American schools the cycles of flowering and seed development. However, the purpose of this lecture is to refresh their memories and have them relate the cycles to the Latin American forests and trees.




1 hour

1. Trainer/forester states that this morning is a quick refresher for everyone and invites a botanist in the group to join in and add his/her comments throughout the lecture. It is recommended that the following outline he put on newsprint and trainees follow it as lecture is given.


1. Many different types.
2. Complete flowers - bisexual.
3. Staminate (male) flowers and pistillate (female) flowers on same tree, monaecius (pines; Douglas-fir).
4. Staminate and pistillate flowers occurring on separate trees (willow; poplar).
5. Polygamo - monoecius - complete flower plus staminate and pistillate flowers on same tree (Buckeye).
6. Polygamo - Dioecious - perfect flowers plus either staminate or pistillate flowers (Buckthorn).

Note: All of the above type trees can hear seeds except the dioecious tree that produces staminate flowers.


Staminate Flower

Pistillate Flower


a. wing
b. Insects
c. Birds
d. Others- mice, bats

Two nuclei penetrate the ovule and double fertilization occurs.

1. One fertilization unites to egg forms embryo.
2. Other fertilization unites with two polar nuclei to form endosperm.


I. Mature Seed

A. Three - six months after fertilization
B. 1 year after fertilization - Pine
C. Some take more time

II. Formation

A. Mature embryo embedded in endosperm (endosperm can be small or absent).
B. Seed coat (integument) forms around the ovule.

III. Embryo = Germ

A. Composed of:

1. Seed leaves - Cotyledon - mostly two (palms 1, pines 4+)

a) manufacture food or
b) have stored food

2. Bud - Plumule
3. Stem - Hypocatyl
4. Rudimentary root - radicle
5. Seed Coats

a. hard (Pines)
b. soft
c. leathery (Cypress)

IV. Types of Seed

A. True seeds (from Pine)
B. Dry fruits; fruit is seed (oak)
C. Fleshy fruit (apple)

V. Ripening

A. Chemical change
B. Hardening
C. Dry
D. Color change

VI. Seed Dispersal

A. Wind

1. light seeds
2. Seeds w/wings

B. Mammals - Birds

1. Rodents
2. Animals

C. Water
D. Fish
E. Man

VII. Seed Collection - Records

A. Seed Maturity
B. Ripeness
C. When to collect

1. early collection - not ripe
2. late collection - few viable seeds left

D. Methods

1. climbing
2. clippers
3. cutters
4. shaking
5. logging
6. bamboo poles
7. collect off ground
8. spread sheet below tree

E. Seed Extraction

1. air dry
2. oven kiln
3. depulting
4. dewinging
5. floating
6. winnowing

*Note: Important in air drying that birds do not eat seeds. Air drying is also the most used and practical method.

F. Seed Treatment

1. burning
2. soaking
3. boiling
4. filing - soaking
5. cutting - soaking
6. tumbling - (with grit)
7. others

Internal dormancy (triggering internal chemical reactions) External dormancy ( seed coat permeability)

G. Germination

To Take Place

1. internal factor - ripe
2. external factor

a. moisture
b. temperature

3. dormancy
4. oxygen
5. light

H. Seed Storage

1. dry - cold: In sealed containers: Pine (pino), Cypress (Cipr├ęs)
2. moist cold: Oak (roble), Maple (arce)

10 minutes

3. room temperature: Acacia (acacia), Eucalyptus (eucalipto)
4. other possibilities

a. partial vacuum
b. dry freeze
c. hole in the ground - bury in sealed plastic bags.

5. how does nature to it? peat moss (turba)
6. small containers

Exercise II

Germination Experiment

Total Time: 2 hours


The purpose of this exercise is to give trainees "hands-on" experience and to apply learnings from previous exercise. Trainees will also develop a record keeping system for their experiments which will reinforce learning from record keeping exercise of the previous day.




1. Trainees are asked to form groups of three. Groups are given a variety of seeds .

2. Groups are told that they are to figure out the best way to treat the seeds (scarify and/or stratify). They must decide three (different methods with at least two varieties of seeds. They are told the species.

Trainer's Note: The purpose of this exercise is not to furnish all the materials trainees need, but to have them find their own boiling water, sand paper, finger nail files etc., at the training site. Plastic hags, seeds and blotter paper are provided.

45 minutes

3. Trainees are told to figure out a record keeping system for the germination experiment.

15 minutes

4. Trainee/manager is identified; the groups are to report their data on progress of germination experiments to manager every three days.

Trainer's Note: Trainer or expert in seed management should present the most applicable procedures and record keeping system used for germination text. Obtain feedback on students' efforts.

Exercise III

Small Group Process

Total Time:

45 minutes


The purpose of this exercise is to look at small group process as compared to larger group process of the previous day. We also make use of feedback skills.




30 minutes

1. Trainers look at the process of their groups. They are told to give each other feedback on the following:

a. leadership qualities

b. participation

c. what helped/hindered getting task done. Everyone must get/give feedback. While one is giving feedback to another, the third trainee observes the quality of the feedback and gives feedback on the quality and skill used for giving/receiving feedback.

5 minutes

2. Trainees are asked to compare working in a small group to working in a larger group.

5 minutes

3. Trainer lists on newsprint findings of various groups as to:

- things that are harder,

- things that are easier,

- impact on individuals.

2 minutes

4. Trainer points out the greater responsibility of human interactions as trainees work together and become more skillful.