|Case Studies on Technical and Vocational Education in Asia and the Pacific - People's Republic of China (UNEVOC - ACEID, 1996, 18 p.)|
|3. Acceleration of the Reform of TVE in China to Suit the Needs of Market Economy System|
Most TVE institutions were set up and administered previously by government professional departments, educational authorities or enterprises, or by any of them jointly. Only a few schools were set up and managed by social organs or by any individuals. Now the government encourages trades, enterprises, social organs and individuals respectively or jointly to set up and run various kinds of technical and vocational schools. We should make enterprises understand that they have a responsibility to contribute their efforts to TVE.
We encourage enterprises and professional departments to jointly set up TVE schools, not to only promote the integration of education of education and the industry, but also increase educational investment.
Huailu County, Hebei Province, initiated a County Vocational Education Centre in 1989, which combined some senior vocational schools and adult agricultural schools previously set up by Local Educational Authorities, and skilled workers schools previously run by Local Labour Department. In 1993, there were 44 classes in this centre with an enrolment of 2039 students. The Centre has 12 laboratories and 11 workshops and farms for students' practice and provides 22 programs.
By now, 60 county Vocational Education Centres have been set up in Hebei Province, each of them with an enrolment of more than 1000 students. This is kind of county vocational education centre is considered successful as one of jointly run vocational schools.
In cities there are a lot of senior vocational schools jointly run by enterprises. For example, in Suzhou and Wuxi city, Jiangsu Province, some light industry schools and silk/textile schools are run jointly by some small and medium sized enterprises and administered by a governing board which consists of representatives of enterprises. The enterprises provide financial support to the school, practising fields to students and placements for graduates. Another example is Shanghai Commercial School which is run jointly by some grand department stores and chambers of commerce.
The other problem facing us is that schools set up and run by professional departments serve only their own fields or trades. This means graduate students were only assigned jobs in their own field. Now we advocate that schools should serve the whole society or the whole community so that graduates can move easily to other trades and other organisations to meet the market demands.
As for the reform of running vocational schools, Hobei province has successfully set up 60 large and multi-functional vocational centres by combination of several small schools, vocational school, skilled worker school, and specialised secondary peasant school, into one in each county. Each centre has an average of 1260 students. For example, there are 10 specialties, 7 experimental places, 20 classes and more than 1000 students in the Huailu Vocational Centre of Hobei province.
The government advocates and encourages schools to set up and manage school-owned enterprises, shops, restaurants and so on, for the purpose of not only providing students with chances of skill practice but also making money for the school.
In recent years, school-run enterprises have developed rapidly. In 1992, the total value of production and of services made by specialised secondary schools and vocational schools of the nation was up 3 billion yuan RMB, of which 500 million yuan RMB was net profits. The skilled worker schools of the country created the value of production of 1.28 billion yuan, of which 135 million yuan was net profit. Most of the profits will be used for improving school facilities, the rest will be used for increasing staff income.
Now, let us take the Second Dressmaking School in Shenyang city for example. In 1992, the school-run factory made profits of 1.04 million yuan RMB; 40 per cent of the profits were handed to the school for improving school facilities and staff income so that teachers' income increased an average of 15-20 per cent each year.