|Vet Quality Management: Approaches to Self-Evaluation Methodology (Republican Institute for Up-Grading Qualification of Academic and Administrative Staff of the System of Education, Kazakhstan, 2002, 72 p.)|
|4. Vocational Education Sector Management Study and Evaluation|
Primary vocational education is provided by vocational schools and lyceums. The study of these institutions activity shows that during 1990-2000 their number dropped from 471 in 1990 to 278 in 2000 (by 59%) whereas market relations development resulted in establishment of private education institutions. In 1996 there were only 9 private education institutions (compare with 30 in 2000). As of 1 October 2000 public education institutions enrolment totaled 5,996 students whereas private education institutions enrolled 2,352 students. Average rate of students enrolment in public vocational schools was 311,5 and 78,4 in private education sector.
Kazakhstan Public and Private Vocational Education Institutions in 1990-2000 (000 students)
The number of vocational education schools significantly dropped during 1990-2000.
Public and Private Vocational Schools Students Enrolment in 1990-2000 (000 students)
Number of vocational education institutions dropped by 60%. This happened due to the following two factors: retrenchment, lack of demand and noncompetitiveness of the professions offered by the education institutions to the labor market.
Admission to vocational schools dropped accordingly. In 1997 the admission was 152,6 ths. young people, whereas in 2000 only 36,9 ths. applicants entered vocational education institutions (24% admission decrease).
The change in admission and enrolment took place when general secondary schools especially urban ones were overloaded. Crucial decrease in vocational schools enrolment to 311 students given 850-900 places made the network money losing.
Private primary vocational education institutions according to rate of their capacity also faced the same difficulties. So if in 1996 the enrolment of these institutions totaled 2,8 ths. students and reached 3,1 ths. students in 1998-1999 academic year then in 2000 it dropped to 2,4 ths. students. Admission numbers of private vocational school are shown in the above diagrams. The drops in admission and enrolment were caused by the population insolvency decrease and excess in such specialists at the labor market. What should be noted is that education private vocational schools admit graduates of 11 grades and the education program doesnt exceed 1-1,5 years. The specialties students are trained in are of non-production sector, i.e. the education process doesnt require considerable expenses for the education base establishment and funding.
Despite implementation of the State Language Development Program training of students in the state language of instruction decreased by 65% (17,5 ths. students) in 2000 in contrast to 49,7 ths. in 1990. In addition to the above stated reasons we can add lack of text-books and education aids in Kazakh, Kazakh speaking teachers drain from the education institutions.
Actually number of vocational education schools is identified according to regional demand in employment. Anyway the volume of such projection makes up less than 5% of the total graduation. Enrolment of vocational education institutions is formed by graduates of grades 9 and 11 (mostly) of general secondary education schools. They obtain only vocational training at the institutions during 1-1,5 years. Vocational education institutions orient to graduates having complete general secondary education who need only vocational training preferring students of this age to problem 15-17 teens.
Thus objective difficulties of the transition condition a few unfavorable factors in the vocational education sector of Kazakhstan. There is still no state vocational education program in the republic. Vocational education institutions links with enterprises are not regulated and the role of different ownership status enterprises in vocational training hasnt been identified yet. Anyway such positive trends as primary vocational education institutions reduction slowdown has manifested during the last two years. Diversification of this education has started characterized by this sector broadening functions. Vocational education programs become more oriented to different sectors of Kazakhstan economy due to toughening competition at the education services market. Measures to develop state standards of vocational education and training are taken and implemented though the process is still far from its completion.