|Case Studies on Technical and Vocational Education in Asia and the Pacific - Thailand (UNEVOC - ACEID, 1996, 30 p.)|
Even though the TVE system in Thailand has played an important role in producing middle level manpower to fulfil the actual needs of the labour market and the development targets of the country, many problems still exist; especially, in an era of rapid growth of the economy and technology.
1. There is no legislation to enforce participation of industries in TVE. Cooperation and coordination between TVE institutions and industries depend on personnel's effort and personnel relationships as well as the willingness of industries.
2. Technology and equipment in industries have been changed rapidly, while TVE institutions are unable to keep abreast with those changes due to the limitation of staff capacities and budget.
3. A large number of technical teachers cross over to industries, and the new technical teacher graduates are not interested in teaching jobs. This has caused a continuing problem of technical teacher shortage in many fields.
4. Due to the rapid growth of the economy, especially in the manufacturing and services sectors, manpower shortages prevail in many fields such as mechanics, metallurgy, electricity, electronics, modern agriculture, tourism, business, management, etc. However, the TVE system does not respond effectively in both quantity and quality.
5. The biggest source of budget for TVE is based on government, which mainly allocates for recurrent expenditures. Capital expenditures for buildings and new equipment are allocated only about 20 per cent - 30 per cent of the total budget. As a result, new equipment slowly replaces the out-of date equipment. The under-investment in TVE in some field has been considered.
6. Research studies for policy decisions, innovation for management, teaching media, and equipment are not substantially considered and financed.
7. International linkages on TVE for exchanging of information and experiences are still limited.
8. More and more students apply for TVE programs but only about 40-45 per cent are admitted. Social demand for TVE puts pressure on expansion of TVE programs. As a result, TVE is unable to fully respond to industrial development.
9. Information about manpower requirement information of industries are not substantial for long term program planning.
10. Computers have become a basic requirement for employment of the graduates but TVE institutions face problems of staff qualification and the substantial number of computers required to provide extensive computer training to every student.