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close this bookCase Studies on Technical and Vocational Education in Asia and the Pacific - Thailand (UNEVOC - ACEID, 1996, 30 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentKEY FACTS
View the documentABBREVIATIONS
View the documentINTRODUCTION
Open this folder and view contents1. AN ANALYSIS OF PRESENT SITUATION
View the document3. PROBLEMS
View the document6. EXISTING LINKAGES
View the documentCASE STUDY 1
View the documentCASE STUDY 2
View the documentCASE STUDY 3
View the documentREFERENCES


The Dual System


In 1988, the Dual System which is a German approach to technical and vocational education was adopted in Thailand. It is believed that the dual system will lead to true cooperation between enterprises and institutions, and between job seekers and their prospective employers. With technical and financial assistance of the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany through GTZ, a pilot project started at one technical college Ta Luang Technical College, which is the college donated by the cement Industry.

The College worked cooperatively and systematically with industries in providing training at the college one day spending four days (in a week) in industries. The teaching and learning process involves about 20 per cent theoretical aspects and 80 per cent practical aspects. Each trainer is required to spend three years or 4800 periods practical training in the college, and 2240 periods on-the-job training in industry in order to complete the program. Entrance qualification is the completion of Grade 9. In 1991, the first group of trainees or 20 trainees completed the program and proved to be very successful in the labour market. The project has been improved and extended. In 1993, there are 130 industries, 17 fields in 13 colleges and 550 students participated in the project.

Figure 3 - Dual System of Technical and Vocational Education

Principle of the Dual System

1. The program is provided according to the needs of industries.

2. Trainees belong to industries, who are selected and supported by industries.

3. Trainees sign a contract for skill training in industry and register with TVE institutions for theoretical subjects learning.

4. The curriculum of this program must be agreed by both TVE institutions and industries.

5. The completion of this curriculum will require three years with approximately 20 per cent theoretical and 80 per cent practical training.

6. TVE institutions must take responsibilities in providing theoretical training for about 1-2 days per week, while industries provide skill training or practical experiences about 3-4 days per week by providing trainers in industries. All trainees must keep records of their training activities.

Guidelines for Development of Dual System Program

1. Industries will inform TVE institutions that they need to upgrade their workers through the dual system program

2. TVE institutions work closely with industries in developing the curriculum.

3. Coordination and cooperation with clear responsibilities, and duties of each party in dual system program are required.

4. TVE institutions and industries work cooperatively in the following activities:

· Identifying target number of trainees
· Identifying period or length of program
· Identifying fields or areas of speciality
· Developing curriculum
· Developing theoretical skill training plan
· Supervising follow-up teaching, learning, and skill training activities
· Measuring and evaluating learning achievement according to the designed curriculum
· Standardising and certifying the graduates.

Program Measurement and Evaluation

Program measurement and evaluation must be organised and implemented by joint-committee between TVE institutions and industries. At least seven persons comprising one representative from industry serving as chairman, three instructors of TVE institutions, and three representatives from industries.

Measurement and evaluation of the dual system program is the same process as that of other TVE programs. However, there are special features of trainees' achievement measurement and evaluation as follows:

1. At the end of the third semester or first half of the curriculum, trainees will be measured in theoretical knowledge and practical skills by the joint-committee

2. At the end of the curriculum or the sixth semester, the joint committee will evaluate the trainees' achievement in theoretical knowledge, practical skills, and ability in implementing such knowledge and skills to complete the project in a limited period of time. A trainee who will complete the program; therefore, must pass all theoretical tests by the end of the sixth semester, submit a complete project, and have skill training as required by the curriculum.

Lessons in Implementing the Dual System


1. Linkages between TVE institutions and industries have been formally developed and strengthened.

2. Industries received qualified manpower.

3. The problems of limited workshop and equipment are alleviated because practical or skills training is carried out in industries.

4. There are an increasing number of industries considering the importance in participation with TVE institutions.

5. The graduates of the dual system program match the needs of industries.

6. Opportunities on TVE are extended to work force in industries.

7. The dual system program has become a prototype program for starting systematic cooperation between TVE institutions and industries.


1. The dual system program is a new approach for TVE in Thailand. TVE administrators, industries, and the target group of training were needed to clearly understand and actively participate in the program. However, during the starting period of the program a small number of trainees and industries were involved.

2. A typical dual system of German approach needs to be implemented, with the law to enforce participation of industries. No such law exists in Thailand. As a result, involvement of industries in this program depended on efforts of TVE institutions' personnel only.

3. Thai industries are mostly comprised of small industries which require a work force with non-formal or on-the-job training only. Consideration of the advantages of a dual system program has been limited.

4. Some TVE staff misunderstand the concept and implementation strategies of dual system resulting in distortion of goals and objectives of the program.

5. Industry's lack of well-trained trainers, and TVE institutions' lack of instructors for supervising the trainees are limitations.

6. Graduates from the dual system receive a certificate which differs from that of TVE in the formal system, however, trainees of dual system prefer to receive a certificate with equivalence to or the same as graduates in the formal TVE program.

Guidelines for Improvement

Dual system will be the best participatory mechanism of enterprises in TVE, if the following aspects are considered.

1. Dual system should be adapted to meet the industrial environment and social demand of each community:

2. All implementing agencies of the dual system program need to be clearly informed and take full responsibilities to fulfil the achievement of the program.

3. TVE staff should be trained in developing continuous relationships and linkages with industries.

4. Guidance and counselling on the dual system program needs to be extensively provided to the public. Special emphasis should be presented on the advantage of the program for the individual, industries, and the community.

5. Sharing of benefits should be the principle of participation.

6. Incentives for industries to participate in TVE should be created through improving and relaxing related rules and regulations.

7. TVE institutions must demonstrate sincerity and seriousness of cooperation and coordination with enterprises.

8. Cooperation and coordination should be systematic, continuous, and well-planned.