|Current Issues and Trends in Technical and Vocational Education - Studies No. 8 (UNEVOC, 1996, 67 p.)|
The Revised Recommendation concerning Technical and Vocational Education, adopted at the eighteen session of the UNESCO General Conference in 1974, became the basic normative instrument for setting standards, for the development and further improvement of training of skilled and competent technical manpower, in accordance with the countries plans for human resources development, corresponding to their needs.
Continuous monitoring of the implementation of the Revised Recommendation through periodic consultations with the Member States allows the UNESCO secretariat to identify some common issues, trends and growth points, as well as particular countries problems and constraints in the development of technical and vocational education. These consultations are carried out through special questionnaires, sent periodically to all countries. In order to achieve a more in-depth analysis of the situation in each country, these questionnaires concentrated on a few most essential issues that are common in the majority of the countries.
In 1985 UNESCO distributed its first questionnaire, which yielded responses from 44 Member States, concentrating on the following nine major issues:
· Technical and vocational education in relation to the educational process;
· Policy, Planning and Administration of technical and vocational education;
· Technical and vocational aspects of general education;
· Technical and vocational education as preparation for an occupational field;
· Technical and vocational education as continuing education;
· Educational and vocational guidance;
· The teaching and learning process: methods and materials;
· Staff; and
· International co-operation.
The second UNESCO questionnaire, distributed in 1992, has been designed more selectively, focussing on the following six major areas of concern:
· Vocational guidance and counselling;
· Promoting the access of girls and women to Technical and vocational education;
· The role of technical and vocational education for enhancing rural development;
· Promotion of co-operation between technical/vocational education institutions and industrial enterprises;
· Professional preparation of teachers for technical and vocational education; and
· Strengthening of international co-operation in the field of technical and vocational education.
This publication is partly based on the responses of the Member states to the second consultation, which have been reported at the twenty-seventh session of the UNESCO General Conference in 1993, enhanced by additional information from recently conducted studies and the reports of conferences and meetings, organized under the International Project for Technical and Vocational Education UNEVOC. Each chapter of the present document is preceded by the quotation of the exact text of the relevant question, for the facility of reference. A total of 55 countries responded to the second questionnaire. A list of the Member States who sent their reports, presented in alphabetical order, is shown in Annex 2.