|Expert Meeting on Teacher Education and Training for Technical and Vocational Education in the Arab States - Final Report - 24 -27 March 1996 (UNEVOC, 1996, 24 p.)|
On the basis of the points that were discussed during the working sessions and debates in which experts and specialists from the Arab Region took part, and after getting acquainted with the results and recommendations of the regional meetings concerning the development of Education in the Arab Region, and more particularly the meetings that were held during 1994-1995 and that concern Technical and Vocational Education and Teacher Training for Technical and Vocational Education, the participants issued a series of recommendations that were classified in conformity with the meeting themes as follows:
A - Orientations of the UNESCO International Project Technical and Vocational Education (UNESCO).
1 - Activate the role of the regional network and the national networks in the implementation of activities related to teacher training and education for Technical and Vocational Education,
2 - Urge member states of the Region to increase their efficiency of the injoined efforts made to implement activities within the framework of the project work plan;
3 - Establish executive programmes in order to achieve the UNESCO objectives and to make the results of these programmes accessible to the regional network.
4 - Profit from distinguished human and material resources in UNEVOC centers taking part in UNEVOC network for sustained teacher training and education for Technical and Vocational Education, through the organization of determined sessions to deal with the new technical changes.
B - Difficulties and problems that face the Arab states in preparing teacher training programmes for Technical and Vocational Education:
The necessity to consider seriously the difficulties that face teacher training and education programmes for Technical and Vocational Education plans and projects to develop human resources. A summary of these problems and difficulties is reported in the second working session: Monday 25/3/1996
C - Factors of teacher training and the teachers tasks:
1 - Necessity to find joint criteria that the Arab states could use in teacher training and education for Technical and Vocational Education;
2 - Orientation of teacher training programmes for Technical and Vocational Education towards the integral pattern based on a large fundamental ground of databases and practical competencies, whenever it is possible.
3 - Training Technical and Vocational Teacher in order to enable him to teach theoretical and practical subjects within training and educational programmes;
4 - Teacher Training programmes factors should include orientation, guidance and career education;
5 - Teacher Training programmes factors should include the capacity to train students on work and self-employment methods as well as on small productive and services projects;
6 - Necessity to have recourse to new technologies to develop the students the professional capacities of technical and vocational teachers to develop self-learning capacities and to reinforce scientific reasoning skills in solving problems;
7 - Let the teachers have communication skills in Arabic, in addition to another foreign language within the framework of a teacher training programme for Technical and Vocational Education;
8 - Link teacher training factors to the world of work;
9 - Reinforce the role of the private sector and big enterprises in the training of technical and vocational teacher and in establishing a natural partnership in this field.
D - The role of the universities in teacher training for Technical and Vocational Education for the successive educational stages (Basic, secondary and post-secondary):
1 - Call universities and specialized research centers to prepare and plan teacher training programmes for Technical and Vocational Education;
2 - The necessity for universities to conduct studies and evaluation researches and follow-up of teacher training programmes for Technical and Vocational Education;
3 - Reinforce the role of specialized educational institutions concerned with the training of technical and vocational teachers, at the university level (the first university degree) and, establish a suitable mechanism of coordination between these institutions at the national and the regional level.
4 - Underline the role of specialized universities and institutions in introducing the concepts of the cooperation with the labour market, the evaluation of the performance and, the achievement of the objectives of technical and vocational curricula;
5 - Amend the basis of admission to universities and institutes and, stress on the desire to exercise teaching, the personal factors and the academies achievements;
6 - Allow technical and vocational teachers to profit from teaching sources and facilities available in universities in order to increase the interaction between universities, technical and vocational institutions and work institutions.
E - Development of teaching methods within Teacher Training programmes for technical and vocational Education in order to meet the needs of the twenty-first century.
1 - Stress on the linkage of the content and the nature of training curricula with the national economy and, the nature of the work available in every country;
2 - Stress on the insertion of the concept of sustained evolution, innovation and follow-up in training curricula and link these curricula to the world of work;
Determine the rate or the volume of vocational theoretical sides compared to practical sides so that to allow trained teachers to get acquainted with the practical basis of different vocational processes and to be able to answer the students questions related to this field;
4 - The importance to determine required capacities and competencies of those concerned with teacher training for Technical and Vocational Education and, to consider seriously these methods of guidance and supervision so that to emphasize on the efficient and complete integral planning method of the programme;
5 - Insertion of job analysis with the planning and development of training programmes, in order to meet the progress and innovations;
6 - Stress on the enhancing of the concept of productive training with teacher training curricula for Technical and Vocational Education, in order to ensure better fields of activity for students and trainees;
7 - Necessity for vocational curricula to be flexible so that they can contain/hold/comprehend the evolution though teacher training and education for technical and Vocational Education;
8 - Emphasize on the fact that teacher training curricula for Technical and Vocational Education include a pragmatic programme in teaching and training institutions before acceding to work. This programme should, for its part, contain an evaluation of the teachers capacities in order to guide him, as far as his performance in teaching or training is concerned.
9 - Give employees, and professional associations a share in defining the components and contents of teacher training programmes for Technical and Vocational Education;
10 - Use new technologies such as computers, simulators, learning sources and interactive programmes in the teacher training and his interaction with the labour market.
11 - Necessity for Teacher education and training programmes to include courses that embody self-learning methods, as well as teamwork and productive projects;
12 - Train teachers on using teacher guides in developing learning contents and methods within the training programmes;
13 - Orientate teaching methods and curricula within teacher training programmes for Technical and Vocational Education to face the changing needs of the twenty first century;
14 - Introduce the cooperative teaching and training system to the factories and enterprises, in such manner that practical applications would be ensured by factories and enterprises in collaboration with those concerned with teacher training and employers.
1 - Tighten the cooperation and coordination between institutions concerned with teacher training for Technical and Vocational Education and, work on the integrity of regional and international organizations workplans in the Arab States.
2 - Work jointly to put teaching and training programmes in the Arab States, in order to allow these states to profit from these programmes and to reinforce the programmes already established in the Arab Region.
3 - Urge the states to apply unified guidelines and criteria in teacher training programmes for Technical and Vocational Education, so that they include the following:
- Direction/Administration and Supervision;
- Educational plans and curricula;
- Evaluation and follow-up;
- School buildings and equipments;
- Teaching sources and new technologies used in the teaching and training process.
4 - Apply joined mechanisms in implementing the leading projects and programmes to support teacher training and education especially as far as new technologies and specialisations are concerned;
5 - Contribute to support leading programmes and projects, as well as activities that serve this objective, such as: the exchange of visits and experiences, the use of technology at the international and regional level and the enhancing of the bilateral and subregional cooperation, within the framework of UNEVOC Network;
6 - Establish a national database that includes data, information, studies and researches related to Technical and Vocational Education and that serves as the basis of an Arab network that allows the exchange of documents, information and experiences between the Arab Countries, in order to reinforce the development and innovation process of Technical and Vocational Training.