|Case Studies on Technical and Vocational Education in Asia and the Pacific - Bangladesh (UNEVOC - ACEID, 1996, 30 p.)|
|4. Demand for and Supply of Skilled Manpower|
A study conducted by the BTEB in 1993 on the Exportability of Skilled Manpower from Bangladesh provides some very interesting information about skilled manpower training requirements. In 1992 Bangladesh exported 188,124 workers to overseas countries. Among them there were 11,375 professionals, 50,689 skilled, 30,977 semi-skilled and 93,083 unskilled workers.
The manpower export from sangladesh increased 31 times in just 17 years during the period from 1976 to 1992. The pattern of the average percentage of distribution of skilled manpower exported during this period is: unskilled - 46.6, semi-skilled - 14, skilled - 34 and professional - 5.6. The UNDP Human Development Report 1992 shows that sangladesh received official remittances from the export of manpower in 1989 US $ 0.8 billion which was 4% of GNP, 59% of exports, 22% of imports and 43% of ODA.
The rise of manpower export from 1988 to 1992 during the years was 376% whereas the increase in official remittances was 141 percent. The reasons for not increasing the remittances proportionate to the rise in the export of manpower were attributed to:
· export of a large proportion of unskilled in place of skilled manpower;
· export of unclassified manpower;
· remigration of skilled manpower at a higher rate;
· unofficial remittances due to higher black market exchange rate;
· abolition of wage earner scheme;
· unscrupulous practices of certain recruitment agencies;
· cumbersome official procedures; and
· deposits to foreign accounts.
The export of unskilled manpower increased three fold whereas skilled manpower export just doubled during the period from 1988 to 1992. The export of skilled manpower felt by 10% that is from 37 to 27% and export of unskilled manpower rose by 8% from 43 to 51% during the same period of 1988 to 1992.1 order to arrest this situation of large scale unskilled manpower export it is essential to put into operation the NCSDT National Skill Standard classifications in the training of skilled manpower.