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close this bookPolicy Development and Implementation of Technical and Vocational Education for Economic Development in Asia and the Pacific - Conference Proceedings - UNESCO - UNEVOC Regional Conference (RMIT, 1997, 520 p.)
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View the documentUNESCO UNEVOC Regional Conference 1996 - Steering Committee
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View the documentGuidelines for Policy Framework Development for TVE Asia Pacific Region
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View the documentPolicy Development and Implementation to Address the TEVT Needs of Disadvantaged Groups
View the documentThe Role of Technical and Vocational Education on the National Economic Development of Cambodia and that of the Greater Mekong Subregion Economic Growth Zone
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View the documentPolicy Development to Promote Linkages Between Labour Market Planning and Vocational and Technical Education Research in Vietnam
View the documentUNEVOC's Focus and Approaches to Address Current Trends and Issues in TVE in Asia and the Pacific
View the documentRestructuring of Secondary Education in Bangladesh
View the documentVocational Education: The Indonesian Experience
View the documentSession: Acceptance of TVE Qualifications and Mutual Recognition on a Regional Basis
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Open this folder and view contentsEmerging Directions in the Training of Technical and Vocational Teachers and Trainers - Indonesia
View the documentThe History of the Preparation of Teachers for Vocational Education and Training at Griffith University
View the documentTechnical Education for the Hi-Tech Era

Restructuring of Secondary Education in Bangladesh

A Rafique
Director General
Directorate of Technical Education
Bangladesh

UNESCO UNEVOC Regional Conference
Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, Australia
11-14 November 1996

Acronyms:

BTEB

-

Bangladesh Technical Education Board

Edn

-

Education

GNP

-

Gross National Product

HSC (Voc)

-

Higher Secondary Certificate (Vocational)

HSC (BM)

-

Higher Secondary Certificate (Business Management)

ILO

-

International Labour Organisation

ODA

-

Official Development Assistance

PC

-

Percentage

Pr

-

Practice

SES

-

Socio Economic Status

SSC (Voc)

-

Secondary School Certificate (Vocational)

Th

-

Theory

Tk

-

Taka

TTC

-

Technical Training Centre

UNDP

-

United Nations Development Programme

VTI

-

Vocational Training Institute

Synopsis:

1. The employment pattern of employed skilled manpower obtained through a series of jobmarket studies reflected primary distortion in the proportion of professional, technician and craftsman. Secondary distortions were also distinctly visible within each levels, such as 64 percent of the technician jobs were occupied by uneducated workers and about 84-96 percent of the skilled jobs were occupied by untrained workers. It was also observed from the comparison of employment pattern of different levels of economies that as the economy moves higher with higher technology the requirement of skilled workers decreases and that of the technician increases.

2. The skilled workers were observed to have the weakest ability in the non-technical skill to express in writing followed by the second weakest criteria to express orally.

The studies conducted on the socio economic status (SES) mobility of the skilled manpower reflected very unacceptable condition for the skilled workers. These studies were based on four parameters; education, profession, income and housing. The skilled worker had to retire at least two scales before that where diploma graduate entered into the job. About 0.27 percent of the diploma graduates achieved the highest pay scale in the Government salary structure.

3. In 1992 the enrolment in TVE in Bangladesh at the secondary level was 0.7 percent. In 1995 the TVE enrolment became' 3.3 percent as against 10 percent in India, 50 percent in China, South Korea and Thailand. The quality of the teachers expressed in terms of experience and training stood at 17 to 28 percent of the requirement for curriculum implementation.

Employment Pattern

4. A series of jobmarket studies have been conducted on the levels of skill and the employment pattern of employed skilled manpower. The Tracer Study for Polytechnic Graduates of Bangladesh (1991) showed that 64 percent of the technician's jobs were occupied by persons without requisite formal education and training. The study shows that about 68 percent of the sampled graduates got employment in 18 months after graduation and this figure for extra-sample graduates was 76 percent during the same period. The total diploma engineering graduates of the BTEB upto 1995 in 12 different technologies were about 50,000. This 50,000 diploma graduates employed in the jobmarket represents more or less 36 percent of the employed diploma graduates. The future projection for employment of diploma graduates for next 5 years were found to be 10 percent of the existing employed graduates for civil technology. For this period this figure was 25 percent for electrical, 18 percent for mechanical and 9 percent for power. The technician job occupied by persons without having requisite formal education and training is definitely required to be reduced to at least 30 percent at this level of economy of the country and gradually it is required to be reduced to absolute minimum in order to increase the productivity in the production and services sectors. This reduction of persons occupying technician's job will create opportunities for employment of about 50,000 additional diploma graduates in future employment market. The average manpower employment pattern in the 200 responding industries covered by this study was professional 11.6 percent, technician 14.4 percent and skilled workers 74 percent.

5. The Bangladesh Technical Education Board carried out scanning of two national daily newspapers to ascertain the volume of advertisements during 1992 and 1993 for non-professional jobs for the internal job market. A total of 88,090 non-professional jobs were advertised during this period of which more than 84 percent were in the private sector. There was an increase of 5 percent advertisements for jobs in 1993 over 1992 in the private sector and this was 2 percent in the Government jobs. This increase in the private sector and more stability in the macroeconomic sector provided indicators that economy was moving forward at a faster rate. The industrial sewing machine operator accounted for 14 percent and diploma engineers for about 4 percent of the advertisements. The total diploma engineers' posts advertised during these two years 1992 and 1993 for the internal job market were 3456, whereas a total of 3962 diploma engineers graduated during the same period. The scanning further revealed that a total of 34,538 jobs were advertised in the occupational area of lower level office management that accounted for 39.2 percent of the total.

6. A study conducted by ILO on the employment of Garment Industries in 1993 found that the skilled workers employed in 15 (fifteen) different types of jobs did not have any type of formal or non-formal training. The qualification of the skilled workers were from no education to higher secondary certificate. The garment industries is a very much labour intensive industry. For at least 25 skilled workers there should be one qualified supervisor for running the garment industry efficiently. The garment industries employed about one million skilled manpower of which 80 percent were to be technically skilled and supervisory level workers. If 2 percent of the supervisory workers were to be employed as diploma graduates, then total number of diploma graduates required for this sector would be about 16,000.

7. A World Bank Study on the jute mills of Bangladesh discovered that the productivity of employed workers on skilled jobs was 50 percent of that of the workers of Indian jute mills though it was found that machineries of Bangladesh jute mills were relatively more modern.

8. Bangladesh earned over Tk 4,800 crores in 1995 by exporting 187,543 skilled manpower. The Bangladesh Technical Education Board conducted a study on Exportability of Skilled Manpower from Bangladesh in 1993. It has been found that during the period from 1988 to 1992 the manpower export increased by 376 percent but the remittances increased only by 141 percent. The main reasons for not increasing the remittances proportionate to the manpower export was identified as the large scale export of untrained and uneducated workers. The classification of the exported skilled manpower have been maintained by the Ministry of Labour and Manpower as professional, skilled, semi-skilled and unskilled workers. The analysis of data showed that there were supervisors in different areas of specialization. If among the exported skilled manpower there were 5 percent qualified supervisors the number would be about 9,000.

9. As per the Study of Jobmarket for the VTI Graduates covering 285 industries in ten different sectors it was found that the manpower employment pattern was: professional 5.2 percent, technician 1.8 percent, skilled workers 73 percent and unskilled workers 20 percent. A total of 1,36,706 skilled workers were employed in these industries of which 95.3 percent did not receive any training. This study was conducted in 1994 by BTEB through an agreement with the Directorate of Technical Education, Ministry of Education.

10. The manpower employment pattern reported in the study report on Future Growth of Skilled Manpower Employment in the Industries Sub-sector conducted by the BTEB through an agreement with the ILO Office, Dhaka in 1994 was: professional 8 percent, technician 5.2 percent, skilled workers 72.4 percent and unskilled workers 14.4 percent. In this study it has been found that 96 percent of the skilled jobs were occupied by untrained workers.

11. The Study on Employment Opportunities and Training Facilities of Skilled Manpower in Selected Localities conducted by the BTEB in 1994 through an agreement with the ILO Office, Dhaka reported an employment pattern of professional (including management staff) 20.4 percent, technician 4.81 percent, skilled workers 62.4 percent and unskilled workers 12.36 percent. It further reported that 84 percent of this skilled workers were employed without any training. In this study in the professional group management staffs were also included. If technical professionals were separated the percentage would be around 6 to 7 percent.

12. A number of other studies were examined and the employment pattern were more or less similar to these studies. A comparison of employment pattern of skilled manpower in the industries among Bangladesh, South Korea and Germany/Japan is given below in Fig-1.

Fig. 1

Distribution of Skilled Manpower

Countries with distribution

Bangladesh

South Korea

Germany & Japan

Category




Professional (P)

5.2

4.5

6.0

Technician (T)

1.8

16.7

58.0

Skilled Workers (S)

73.0

65.8

36.0

Unskilled Workers (U)

20.0

13.0

-

13. The comparative situation of Bangladesh manpower employment pattern in industries sector with that of South Korea and Germany/Japan has been graphically presented in Fig-2.


Fig-2

As per the World Bank World Development Report 1994 the per capita GNP for Bangladesh in U$ was 220, South Korea 7,000 Germany/Japan 23000/28000. It is observed that as the economy moves higher the skilled manpower requirement decreases and requirement of the technician increases faster and the requirement of professional remains more or less steady or decreases.

14. Korea Institute for Industrial Economics and Trade made thorough study of manpower employment pattern and produced an outlook on the structure of industries technical manpower demand projecting upto 2000 AD, given in Fig-3.


An Outlook on the Industries' Technical Manpower Demand

Recruitment and Promotion Procedures of skilled Workers.

15. Findings of these and other studies demonstrate that most of the industries employing skilled workers do not have job description, job specification and personnel specification nor do they have clear recruitment and promotion rules. According to the study on future growth of skilled manpower employment in the industrial sub-sector only 30 percent of the industries use practical test for recruitment of skilled workers and 70 percent (19 percent written, 32 percent oral and 19 percent C.V. report) use criteria other than practical test. The promotion of skilled workers is given on the basis of: experience 42 percent, performance on the job 39 percent, further training 10 percent, age 4 percent, male sex preference 3 percent and female sex preference 1 percent and other criteria 1 percent.

Export of Skilled Manpower:

16. The manpower export from Bangladesh increased 31 times in just 17 years during the period from 1976 to 1992. The pattern of the average percentage of distribution of skilled manpower exported during this period are unskilled 46.6, semi-skilled 14, skilled 34 and Professional 5.6. The UNDP Human Development Report 1992 shows that Bangladesh received official remittances from the export of manpower in 1989 US$ 0.8 billion which was 4 percent of GNP, 59 percent of exports, 22 percent of imports and 43 percent of ODA.

The rise of manpower export from 1989 to 1992 during the 5 years was 376 percent whereas the increase in official remittances was 141 percent Fig. 4 and 5. The main reasons for not increasing the remittances proportionate to the increase in export of manpower may be attributed to:

- export of large proportion of unskilled in place of skilled manpower;
- export of unclassified manpower; and
- remigration of skilled manpower at higher rate.


Fig. 4: Rise of Manpower Exported and Apparent increase of Remittance


Fig. 5: Distribution of Manpower Exported (Percentage)

Quality of the Employed Skilled Workers

17. Findings in the relevant section of a number of studies about the ability and attitude of the employed skilled workers are considered to identify the level and quality.

The study of job market for the VTI graduates (1994) covered a sample size of population 300 industries in ten sectors: communication, electricity, engineering, food, jute, petrochemicals, textile, transport, water and others. The response rate was 92 percent. Total employed skilled manpower were 1,57,967 of which 1,39,248 were skilled workers.

The weighted frequency of responses on the attitude and ability on the skilled workers on a five-point scale expressed in terms of percentage is given in Fig. 4.

Fig. 6

Criteria



Weighted Frequency (Percentage)

Attitude to

. job

-

72


. superior

-

77


. subordinate

-

77


. punctuality

-

77

Ability to

. perform manipulative skill

-

75


. express in writing

-

57


. express orally

-

64


. supervise subordinate

-

70

It appears that the skilled workers have the weakest ability in the non-technical skill to express in writing followed by second weakest criteria to express orally. Among the four criteria used to assess the attitude, the workers are the weakest in their attitude to job.

18. The study on future growth of skilled manpower employment in the industrial sub-sector (1994) covered a sample size of 300 industries with response rate of 93 percent. The total employed skilled manpower in these industries were 49,490 of which 1231 were women. The total skilled workers employed were 28,708. The weighted frequency of responses on a five-point scale about the attitude and ability of the skilled workers expressed in percentage is given in Fig. 7.

Fig. 7

Criteria



Weighted Frequency (Percentage)

Attitude to

. job

-

80


. superior

-

80


. subordinate

-

80


. punctuality

-

78

Ability to

. perform manipulative skill

-

77


. express in writing

-

61


. express orally

-

79


. supervise subordinate

-

78

The skilled workers have the weakest non-technical competency that is their ability to express in writing. Among the four criteria selected for attitude the workers demonstrated to be the weakest in their attitude relating to punctuality.

19. The study of the training need survey for the Power Development Board power plant skilled workers (1991-1992) covering 16 power plants with generation capacity of 2310 MW with the total employment of 1332 skilled workers reported performance competence and behaviour of the skilled workers on a 5-point scale for 5 cluster of skilled jobs expressed in percentage is given is Fig. 8.

Fig. 8

Performance Competence and Behaviour of Skilled Workers


Indicators (PC)

Type of Workers

Technique

Skill

Knowledge

Supervisory skill

Loyality and behaviour

Adjustability and attitude

Oral and written expression

Safely

Electrician (ABCD)

71

70

69

67

71

72

66

66

Fitter (ABC)

59

62

55

39

68

65

54

57

Machinist/ Turner (ABCD)

60

62

59

70

63

62

56

59

Welder (ABCD)

70

70

62

64

71

60

58

64

Instrument Mechanic (ABCD)

64

63

67

56

69

65

59

62

The ability to supervise, mostly non-technical skill has been rated as the lowest indicator for the fitter. The ability to make oral and written expression has been rated lowest among the eight criteria for the electrician, machinist and welder. This also is the lowest for the fitter except supervisory skill. The ability to make oral and written expression has been the second lowest for instrument mechanic. A total of 86 percent of employed instrument mechanic had academic qualification secondary school certificate and above, the highest percentage among all the cluster groups. This shows that workers employed with higher academic qualification have ability to make better oral and written expression.

SES of Vocational Graduates

20. Vocational education in Bangladesh upto December 1994 was considered as a non-formal skill training system where the graduate could not go for further education. The findings of a number of researches and studies conducted show clear indicatives that this education was creating more inequalities and social injustice in the society perpetuating the caste system. The vocational education system failed to create mobility in the socio-economic status (SES) of its graduates over the SES of their parents. A comparison of the prospect of the mobility of SES of vocational graduates, technician graduates and higher education graduates is presented in a synoptic way.

The findings of the study conducted by the Bangladesh Technical Education Board on the SES of the parents of the VTI/TTC students considering four parameters: education, profession, income and housing is given in Fig. 9

Fig. 9

Socio-economic Status of the parents of VTI/TTC Students

A. Education

Edn. level (pc)

No Edn

Class

SSC or equivalent

Trade

HSC or equivalent

Diploma Engg. Agri etc.

Pass Deg

Mast Engg Agri

Others

Parents


I-V

VI-X








Mother

36

38

22

3

-

1

-

-

-

-

Father

13

22

29

19

2

9

-

5

1

-

B. Profession

Job (pc)

House hold

Agriculture

Business

Service

Other works

No work

Remarks

Parents








Mother

93

2

1

2

1

1

-

Father

1

49

13

31

2

4

-

C. Income (annual)

Income (pc)

Negligible

TK. 1000 to 5000

TK. 6000 to 10000

TK. 11000 to 15000

TK. 16000 to 20000

TK. 21000 to 30000

Above 30000

Parents








Mother

73

16

3

2

2

3

1

Father

9

20

15

18

17

13

8

D. Housing

Location (pc)

Living in own house

Living in rented house

No own house

Remark

Parents

Village

Value

City

Value

Village

City

Village

City


Mother

80

-

15

-

-

5

3

7

-

Father

78

-

18

-

-

4

2

7

-

The SES of the VTI/TTC graduates considering only income and profession derived from the Bangladesh Technical Education Board's study of the job market for the VTI graduates covering 300 industries conducted in 1994 is given Fig. 10. Here only the job or profession level acquired has been given.

Fig. 10

SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS OF VTI/TTC GRADUATES:

Employment Status

Percentage

Basic Skilled

8.17

Semi-skilled

31.02

Skilled

50.03

Highly Skilled

9.05

Foreman

0.73

The basic skill is the lowest and master is the highest skill according to which the employed skilled workers have been classified. In the existing employment pattern a master craftsman has the highest possibility of getting employment as Foreman. It is observed that the SES mobility for vocational graduates is quite insignificant or absent. The graduates from the non-formal vocational education system finish their life career one stage below the starting point of the technician.

SES of Technician Graduates

21. A similar study conducted by the Bangladesh Technical Education Board on the SES of the parents of the students of the Polytechnic Institutes on four parameters: education, occupation, income and housing is given in Fig. 11

Fig. 11

A. Education:

Education (pc)

Nil

Class

SSC

HSC

B.A. B.Sc etc.

B.Sc.Ag. B.Sc.Engg. M.A. etc.

Others

Parents


I-V

VI-X






Father

6

5

16

24

20

20

3

6

Mother

13

18

37

22

6

3

1

-

B and C. Occupation and Annual Income:

Parents (pc)

Profession

Income (TK.)


Farmer/House Wife

Service

Business

Other

0-5,000

5.000-10,000

10,000-20,000

above 20,000

Father

22

52

20

6

10

10

17

63

Mother

93

5

-

2

-

-

-

-

D. Housing (Percentage):

Location

Ownership

Town

Village

Own house

Rented house

Relative's house

Others

60

40

81

16

1

2

The SES of the employed technician graduates derived from the tracer study of the diploma engineering graduates conducted by the Bangladesh Technical Education Board in 1990 covering a large population of 20,987 graduates and in 1st stage and 2nd stage sampling with 4132 respondents. The SES mobility in terms of salary and occupation was considered and with percentage distribution is given in Fig. 12

The tracer study of diploma engineering graduates shows that the employed diploma engineering graduates on the average have promotional pattern as a means of acquiring SES as:

Fig. 12

DESIGNATION

NUMBER EMPLOYED

PERCENTAGE

Sub-Assistant Engineer

3312

80.15

Assistant Engineer

568

13.75

Executive Engineer

196

4.73

Superintending Engineer

45

1.10

Chief Engineer and similar position

11

0.27


4132

100.00

SES of Higher Education Graduates:

22. Benefits of the Government Education budget derived by the parents of the students of University & Higher Education (World Development Report 1991 PP 66).

Government spending is not always efficient or equitable. Many countries spend a disproportionate share of their education budgets on higher education; students from upper-income groups benefit most. In Chile, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, Uruguay the top income quintile has received more than half the higher education subsidies, the bottom quintile less than one-tenth.

Government education resource allocation and beneficiaries in Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Papua New Guinea is given in Fig. 13.

Fig. 13

Countries

Benefitted People (Percentage)

Resources consumed for education (Percentage)

Bangladesh, India, Nepal and PNG

10

50

Bangladesh

10

72

The SES of the higher education graduates has been derived based on occupation and income and presented with only occupation in Fig. 14

Fig. 14

Socio-Economic Status of the Higher Education Graduates that is achievable:

Type of Employment

Percentage

Asstt. Commissioner
Asstt. Engineer
Asstt. Architect

56

Deputy Secretary/Executive Engineer

32

Joint Secretary/Supdt Engineer

8

Additional Secretary/Chief Engineer

2

Secretary

2


100


Fig. 15

SES of the VTI/TTC and diploma graduates is given in Fig. 15 and that of higher education graduates in Fig. 16.

The vertical axis represents 20 pay scales of Government Servants. 1 starting with highest and ends up with 20 the lowest salary. The horizontal axis represents units percentage distribution.


Fig. 16

Vocational Education Enrolment

23. As per UNDP Human Development Report 1994 the HDI of Bangladesh for 1992 stood at 0.309 with per capita GNP $220 and enrolment in vocational education 0.7 percent at the secondary level. With the opening of basic trade programme for the secondary school students in 1994 the percentage enrolment in vocational education rose to 1.4 and in January 1995 it stood at 3.3 and January 1996 it will rise to 5 and it is expected by 2000 the enrolment in vocational education will be 15 percent.

China has obtained HDI 0.644 with per capita GNP $470 and vocational enrolment 50 percent. India has HDI 0.382 with per capita GNP $310 and vocational enrolment at the secondary level at 10 percent in 1995 and it is expected to rise to 25 percent by 2000.

South Korea with HDI 0.859 has per capita GNP $6790 and vocational enrolment of 50 percent, Thailand with HDI 0.798 has per capita GNP $1840 with vocational enrolment 50 percent.

A comparative position of enrolment in vocational education of Bangladesh, China, India, South Korea, Thailand is given in Fig. 17.

Fig. 17

Vocational Education at the Secondary level as Percentage in Five Countries:

Country

GNP

HDI

Enrolment in Vocational Education




1993

1995

1996

2000

Bangladesh

220

0.309

0.7

3.3

5

15

China

470

0.644

50

-

-

-

India

310

0.382

-

10

-

25

South Korea

6790

0.859

50

-

-

-

Thailand

1840

0.798

50

-

-

-

Note: The HDI includes three key components: longevity, knowledge and income.

Quality of Teachers

24. It is a very difficult exercise in educational planning to carry out analysis of syllabus implementation requirement interms of teachers background. Accepting the academic qualification as appropriate, though it was/is not, an analysis about the background of the vocational teachers was conducted by the writer in 1982 covering superintendents, and teachers of 46 VTIs out of 51 representing 90 percent of the VTIs. The analysis has limitation that it took into account the quantitative aspect only that is the length of experience, duration of training. Two separate scales were assumed one for the experience and the other for the training. Findings of the analysis with two assumed scales presented as the management and teaching staff effectiveness at that time is given in Fig. 18

Fig. 18

Background Percentage

Experience

Training

Total

Category

Teaching
20

Industrial
20

Industrial
*15/25

Teacher
*15/25

Management
*30/10


Superintendent

18

2

1

6

-

27

Teacher

11

1

2

3

-

17

(a) Experience Weightage

b)Training Weightage





Above 10 years

100%

Above 12 months

100%

6-10 years

50%

3-12 months

50%

1-5 years

25%

below 3 month

25%

* For the Superintendent.

25. A similar analysis was conducted in 1994 with a sample of 8 VTIs out of 51 representing 16 percent of the VTIs. This particular analysis was done with superintendent, Assistant. Superintendents and teachers. The findings of this analysis presented in terms of management and teaching staff effectiveness is given in Fig-19

Fig. 19

Background Percentage

Experience

Training

Total

Category

Teaching
20

Industrial
20

Industrial
*15/25

Teacher
*15/25

Management
*30/10


Superintendent

20

-

1

6

-

27

Assistant Superintendent

20

-

-

4

-

24

Teacher

15

-

-

13

-

28

(a) Experience Weightage

b) Training Weightage





Above 10 years

100%

Above 12 months

100%

6-10 years

50%

3-12 months

50%

1-5 years

25%

below 3 month

25%

* For the Superintendent.

Comparison between the findings of the two analyses shows that the management effectiveness was 27 percent of the requirement in 1982 and also 27 percent in 1994. From 1982 to 1994 the teacher effectiveness increased from 17 to 28 percent, teaching experience went up from 11 to 15 point units and the teacher training increased from 3 to 13 point units. For teachers, in 1994 the industrial experience and management training stood at zero. Though there was marked improvement in the teaching staff effectiveness during the period of 13 years from 1982 to 1994 but for both the management and teaching staff effectiveness stood at much lower than that required for the vocational curriculum implementation.

26. A similar analysis with the same scales was conducted by the writer at the time of conducting evaluation of the Polytechnic Institutes in 1982-83 on the management and teaching staff effectiveness of the Principal, Vice-Principal, Chief Instructor, Instructor, Workshop Superintendent and Junior Instructor (Tech). The responses were received from 14 Polytechnic Institutes out of 17 representing about 82 percent of the Polytechnic Institutes. The percentage effectiveness of different categories of management and teaching staffs stood at 40 for Principal, 30 for Vice-Principal, 32 for Chief Instructor, 27 for Instructor, 22 for Workshop Superintendent and 17 Junior Instructor (Technical). The effectiveness of the Instructor and Junior Instructor went up recently as a result of teacher training but still it is less than 40 percent.

Surprisingly for all categories of management and teaching staffs the industrial experience, industrial training and management training stood at zero. The higher level of effectiveness for Principals stood at 40 percent and for the rest of the staffs ranged from 17 to 32 percent of the implementation requirement of the curriculum.

Findings and Future Directions

27. The synthesis of the main issues raised in the different sections: employment pattern of the skilled workers, quality of the skilled workers, Social Economic Status (SES) of the skilled workers, vocational education enrolment and quality of teachers emerge with a series of significant findings.

28. Based on these and such other findings and other related reports and issues the Government have recently taken a number of dynamic policy decisions. As a result of such policy decisions the allocation of resources to education now amounts to about 14.83 percent of the total national development budget and rightly with 51.74 percent allocation to primary education and wrongly 35.33 percent to secondary and higher education (Universities not included).

The most significant policy decision taken in this context by the Ministry of Education is the restructuring of the secondary education programme by creating a formal vocational education branch at the secondary and higher secondary level. The structure of the secondary school certificate vocational education i.e. SSC (Voc) programme contains a total of 1440 periods of teaching load in a year to be covered in 36 weeks plus 8 weeks of job placement. At the higher secondary certificate there are two branches viz HSC (Voc) and HSC (BM)

SSC (Voc) has been introduced as a new branch at the secondary level from 1994 which will be followed by HSC (Voc) from 1997. From 1995, SSC (Voc) has been introduced in 117 secondary schools and HSC (BM) a new branch of study at HSC level has been introduced in 114 colleges and institutions in 1995. As a result, about 5 percent of the secondary level students have been enroled in the vocational stream in 1996. The enrolment in the vocational stream with the implementation of three different projects SSC (Voc), HSC (Voc), HSC (BM) under the administrative control of Ministry of Education will rise to 10 percent by 2000. The combined enrolment in these three branches including basic trade will be 1,85, 420 by 2000.

The structure of SSC (Voc) with subject weightage is given in Fig-20. The relationship of SSC (Voc), HSC (Voc) and HSC (BM) with that of the general secondary and higher secondary branch is given in Fig 21.

Fig. 20

STRUCTURE OF SSC (VOCATIONAL)

Weekly Distribution of Periods:

FIRST YEAR (CLASS IX)

Period

Period

Subject

Th.

Pr.

Total

1. Bangla-1

4

0

4

2. English-1

4

0

4

3. Mathematics-1

2

0

2

4. Religious Education-1

1

0

1

5. Social Science-1

1

0

1

6. Trade Science-1

1

3

4

7. Drawing

0

3

3

8. Trade

3

18

21

Total:

16

24

40

9. Industrial Attachment (8 weeks)

SECOND YEAR (CLASS X)

Period

Period

Subject

Th.

Pr

Total

1. Bangla-2

4

0

4

2. English-2

4

0

4

3. Mathematics-2

2

0

2

4. Religious Education-2

1

0

1

5. Social Science-2

1

0

1

6. Trade Science-2

1

3

4

7. Computer Application

0

2

2

8. Self-employment & Entrepreneurship

1

0

1

9. Trade

3

18

21

Total:

17

23

40

10. Industrial Attachment (8 weeks)

Class IX:

General Subjects

- 16 Periods x 36 weeks = 576 periods

1440 periods

Trade Subjects

- 24 Periods x 36 weeks = 864 periods

1440 periods

Class X:

General Subjects

- 19 Periods x 36 weeks = 684 periods

1440 periods

Trade Subjects

- 21 Periods x 36 weeks = 756 periods

1440 periods


Fig. 21: INTEGRATED LOWER SECONDARY SECONDARY AND HIGHER SECONDARY EDUCATION SYSTEM