|Policy Development and Implementation of Technical and Vocational Education for Economic Development in Asia and the Pacific - Conference Proceedings - UNESCO - UNEVOC Regional Conference (RMIT, 1997, 520 p.)|
PRINCIPLES FOR POLICY DEVELOPMENT
The following principles were discussed and agreed upon by the National UNESCO delegates as those inderpinning the development for TVE at the 15th November 1996 meeting.
The principles are:
Incorporating quality procedures at all stages of TVE; efficiency and affordability issues, quality support and learning environments, and quality outcomes and graduates.
TVE For Better Citizenship
Where the focus of TVE is related to the societal outcomes appropriate to the national context.
At all levels of TVE, decisions and policy should be on sound research outcomes.
Responsiveness to client needs and environmental demands are essential components of TVE.
TVE systems need to be robust in process and outcome.
TVE should provide opportunities for formal and informal learning throughout the learner's life.
ISSUES BASED FRAMEWORK FOR POLICY DEVELOPMENT
Key issues were identified by the UNEVOC delegates and some expansion of the issues has been documented for further discussion and adaptation across the Asia-Pacific Region.
1. Context for TVE
· Advocacy for TVE at national level
· Awareness of opportunities and need for TVE amongst client group and government
· Cultural imperatives, eg literacy rates
· National and transnational economic activities
· Forecasting human resources and manpower needs
· Infrastructure of national resources
· Technological change
· Social and community demands
· Nature of the absorbing sector - paid employment/entrepreneurial skills opportunities
· Political will and commitment
2. Status of TVE
· In relationship to whole educational structure
· In regard to national direction and economic development
· In the eyes of the client group
3. Financing for TVE
· Funding models
· Public and private systems
· Centralised or de-centralised
· Affordability of TVE
4. Links with Industry
· Dynamic TVE system, responsive to market demands
· Identify if there is a market for TVE
· Employment opportunities for TVE graduates
5. Staff Development
· Teacher/support staff training
· Pre-service, in-service training
· Industry, technology relevant and current training
· Part of broader change management process
6. Delivery of TVE
· Integration of vocational and general education
· Access to TVE for clients with special needs
· Public or private - diversity of providers
· Centralised for de-centralised
· Forms of delivery for open access
· Dealing with pace of technological change
· Design and delivery implications
· Methods of assessment
· Education focus and/or training focus
· Recognition of life skills, informal and formal training
· Certification of competencies
· Integration of vocational and general
· Vertical mobility
9. Management of TVE
· Consolidation and co-ordination of system
· Industrial relations issues (working conditions, status) for teaching staff
· Leadership of TVE system, of institutions
10. Internationalisation of TVE
· Transnational provision
· Regionalisation and globalisation of economies
· National and international standards and benchmarks
· Regional co-operation for improvement of TVE