|The Role of Technical and Vocational Education in the Educational System in Ghana (UNEVOC, 1994, 46 p.)|
Management and Administration
The Ministry of Education is responsible for formulating policies, preparing plans and monitoring the implementation of educational programmes. The Ministry, which is headed by the Minister for Education, has the following Divisions under it:
i. School Education
ii. Tertiary Education
iii. Non-Formal Education
iv. Administration and Finance
v. Planning, Budgeting, Monitoring and Evaluation.
The Tertiary Education Division of the Ministry is responsible for implementing policies and programmes relating to tertiary education, which is delivered at the Universities, the University Colleges, the Polytechnics and similar institutions.
The Ghana Education Services (GES) was established in 1974 as part of the Public Services of Ghana by the National Redemption Council Decree (NRCD 247) of 1974. It is the largest of the bodies under the Ministry of Education, and has the responsibility of implementing pre-university educational policies formulated by the Ministry of Education. It is headed by a Director-General, who is assisted by two Deputy Directors-General, ten Directors and two-Coordinators at the Headquarters.
The Director-General of the Ghana Education Service works through the Deputy Minister in charge of the School Education Division of the Ministry of Education to the Minister for Education. One of the two Deputy Directors-General is responsible for school operation programmes (i.e. Basic Education, Secondary Education, Teacher Education, Technical and Vocational Education, Special Education, Physical Education, Cultural Studies and Curriculum Research and Development), whilst the other oversees Manpower and Training, Supplies and the Inspectorate.
At the Headquarters level, there are ten Divisions of the Service, namely Basic Education, Secondary Education, Teacher Education, Technical and Vocational Education, Special Education, Manpower and Training, Supplies, Curriculum Research and Development, Administration and Finance, and the Inspectorate, each headed by a Director. There are also Physical Education and Cultural Studies Units headed by Co-ordinators, both within the Director-General's outfit.
There is also a Regional Education Office, headed by a Regional Director in each of the ten Regions of the country, whilst there is a District Education Office in each of the 110 districts headed by a Director.
The Ghana Education Service is charged with the responsibility to:
a) administer, manage and inspect pre-university educational institutions;
b) register, supervise and inspect private schools;
c) provide teacher education, general education, special education (as education of the handicapped), and technical and vocational education;
d) arange to register teachers and maintain professional standard and conduct of teachers;
e) maintain a code of ethics and good conduct among teachers.
The Former Structure
In the past the structure of education in Ghana consisted of three levels:
i. First-Cycle or Elementary Education This level was made up of 6-year Primary Education and 4-year Middle School Education;
ii. Second-Cycle Education This level comprised the education provided in the following categories of institutions:
- Secondary Schools providing 5-year secondary education followed by 2-year sixt form education
- Technical Institutes
- Vocational Schools/Training Centres
- Teacher Training Colleges providing 4-year post-middle programme/course. (This programme/course was phased out completely in June 1991).
NB. Institutions which were post-secondary but were treated as second-cycle institutions included the following:
- post-secondary Teacher Training Colleges.
iii. Institutions of higher education comprised
- The 3 Universities
- the 7 Diploma-Awarding Institutions.
THE PRESENT STRUCTURE
Currently, Ghana's educational structure based on the 6 + 3 + 3 + 4 system under the new Educational Reform Programme consists of three levels as mentioned below: (See Appendix 'A').
i. First Cycle or Basic Education This level is made up of 6-year Primary Education followed by 3-year Junior Secondary Education.
ii. Second-Cycle Education This level of education is provided in the following categories of institutions;
- Senior Secondary School (3 years)
- Technical institutes
- Vocational Schools/Training Centres
- Other post-basic educational institutions
iii. Tertiary Education This level of education comprises the following institutions:
- The 4 Universities and the University College of
- Education, Winneba. the 6 Polytechnics.
- a number of pre-service training institutions which are primarily career or work-oriented. (These pre-service training institutions include Nurses' Training Colleges, Agricultural Colleges, Forestry School, Veterinary School, and 38 initial Teacher Training Colleges (10 of which offer technical subjects).
N.B. It is envisaged that these institutions, which are spread all over the country, will be grouped together and managed regionally as Regional colleges of Applied Arts, Science and Technology (RECAAST).