|National Profiles in Technical and Vocational Education in Asia and the Pacific - Afghanistan (ACEID, 1995, 20 p.)|
|Part II: Training Modes and TVET System|
There are five types of technical and vocational education. They are: technician education in junior and senior high schools; technician education in specialist training schools, technical training under the vocational training law; training of technicians; and training of engineers.
1. Technical education in junior and senior high schools
In junior high schools, the students acquire basic knowledge in electricity, machinery, wood working and metal working; their acquisition of such knowledge is not designed for them to establish themselves as electricians or lathe mechanics in the future but to provide them with the opportunity to undergo part of general education on which all the technological achievements of today should be based.
The objective of vocational education or technical training in senior high school is to train the students in certain technical aspects of agriculture, industry, commerce, fishery and homemaking to provide them with the necessary basic knowledge for the vocations they choose. In the meantime, however, it has come up to our attention that those undergoing vocational education are becoming less interested in learning probably because they are aware of the fact that (1) there is a climate in which the vocational education is slighted and (2) more and more are turning to higher education at colleges and universities. Improper course guidance in their schools also causes this trend.
2. Technical education in specialist training schools
Specialist training schools devote a greater part of vocational education to practices, while universities and junior colleges do not place particular emphasis on practices because of much fewer hours available. The specialists training schools seem to have an advantage over the universities and colleges since they are in a position to provide immediate employment opportunities.
3. Technical training under the Vocational Training Law
Various training programmes are conducted under the Vocational Training Law for the purpose of improving individual skills and developing abilities. These activities, however, seem to need some drastic modifications to cope with the general trend of attaching more importance to academic background.
4. Training of technicians
The objective of the technical colleges and other similar institutions is to train the students to be competent technicians. The term technicians used here refers to one who is versed in technicalities of a subject or skilled in the technique of an art. The technician stands between the engineer and the skilled worker.
5. Training of engineers
Engineers are trained at colleges and universities. The technical knowledge acquired can be applied to a wider range of vocations.