|National Profiles in Technical and Vocational Education in Asia and the Pacific - Myanmar (ACEID, 1995, 44 p.)|
|Part II: Training Modes and Systems|
Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET) system in Myanmar has opened opportunities for diversification into TVET at three points viz the end of primary level, the end of middle level and on completion of high school level (see Diagram 2.1). The Pre-technical and vocational education is offered to students from grades 5 to 8 since 1974/75 in 50 selected Basic Education High Schools. In 1977/78, 70 Basic Education Middle Schools are selected and production cum vocational courses were offered to all students in the same grade as mentioned above. The objective was to improve employability (self or otherwise) of the young students and to foster right attitudes towards production and hands-on income-generating skills. In reality, it was found out that the young students from rural areas and those employed in urban information sector usually dropped out of school early for unpaid work in family enterprises while most parents and students from urban areas regarded pre-vocational or skilled employment as of low status and usually continued on to higher education.
The TVET school-based training is under the Department of Technical, Agricultural and Vocational Education (DTAVE) and is responsible for training of middle-rung technicians, skilled and semi-skilled workers. The principal objectives are: training and formulation of programmes to link teaching with on-the-job experience; setting priorities for occupations and skills which will be most useful in practical fields; organizing training programmes in vocational subjects for students who dropped out at various levels of the formal education system; to train and nurture skilled technicians and experts who are imbued with a sense of consciousness and conviction to cherish the state. The DTAVE organizational structure is shown in Diagram 2.2.
The DTAVE is chaired by the Minister for Education. It has a membership of seventeen, and a secretariat of three. The membership consists of representatives of relevant Ministries. The council is the decision-making body for TVET under the Ministry of Education. Under the council, there are three Educational Committees: Educational Committee; Curriculum Committee; and Examination Committee (see Diagram 2.3). These committees are responsible for the design, development, implementation and monitoring of the progress in the three distinct types of education offered by DTAVE. They are: Technical Education; Agricultural Education; and Vocational Education. At the institutional level, Governing Bodies are chaired by the Principals. The members consist of teachers and officers, representatives from industries and enterprises, and the respective communities. The Governing Body members are responsible for the smooth operation of the schools and institutes.
Source: DTAVE 1990
Source: DTAVE 1990
Source: DTAVE 1990
The industrial/enterprise-based Training is the retraining for changing technologies emerging in the industries. Many industries and enterprises have their own training wings and programmes to meet the special requirement of affiliated factories and workshops.
The training of skilled workers and the initial and further training of employed persons are usually undertaken by the departments, boards and corporations of relevant Ministries. Several Ministries have set up: Group Training Centres for workers; Formal In-Plant Service (Enterprise-Based); and Informal on-the-job training. One aspect of industrial/enterprise-based training in Myanmar is the 3-months on-the-job training undertaken by all students of the technical institutes and agriculture institutes after they have appeared for the final examinations in their final years of schooling. All the Ministries co-operate with the Ministry of Education in implementing the yearly programme and students are placed in industries and enterprises all over the country. Financial support in the form of monthly allowances is provided to all students by the industries and enterprises of the Ministries concerned (see Table 5.11), sample of a Vocational Training Centre Organization under the Department of Labour as shown on Diagram 2.4.