|National Profiles in Technical and Vocational Education in Asia and the Pacific - Myanmar (ACEID, 1995, 44 p.)|
|Part II: Training Modes and Systems|
Technical and Vocational Education and Training was carried out in 1950 under the Ministry of Education with two Artisan Training Centers, a Government Technical Institute and a Faculty of Engineering at the University of Rangoon (Yangon). In the area of agricultural education, there were only three institutions viz, one Agricultural High School, one State Agricultural Institute and one Agricultural College. But in early 1960, one Technical High School and one more Government Technical Institute were established. Some vocational schools were also established in the late 1960.
The DTAVE was formally established under the Ministry of Education in 1972. Since then DTAVE has been entrusted with training of middle level technicians, skilled and semi-skilled tradesmen. By 1973, there were altogether 30 institutions providing technical, agricultural and vocational education and training. This number increased to 52 by 1983 and to 66 by 1992. (See Table 5-6).
Apart from the regular full time courses, DTAVE also operates 11 part-time evening courses and one mobile training unit (see Tables 5.7 and 5.8). DTAVE is not only concerned with the training of technicians, skilled and semi-skilled tradesmen, who eventually will be participating in the production activities, but also with the training of school dropouts and illiterate youth to become employable.
Under the Department of Higher Education (DHE), there are only two tertiary level institutions for technical education, namely, the Yangon Institute of Technology (YIT) and the Mandalay Institute of Technology (MIT), which provide high level technician manpower to the public and the private sectors.
Source: ILO, 1987
In addition to the Ministry of Education, other Ministries have also set-up their own training wings to cater to the needs of affiliated industries and enterprises. It is estimated that some 140 training institutions exist, operated by various ministries (see Table 5.11).
At present, the world is witnessing dramatic changes in industry and economy brought about by rapid advances in science and technology. As a result, there is a corresponding transformation in the occupational patterns and job qualifications. Although Myanmar, being a developing country, is not yet faced with such emerging challenges, plans are under way to formulate policies, guidelines and strategies not only to address the human resource requirements of the future trends in industry and economy but also to fulfill the current needs by:
1. developing teaching quality and effectiveness of teachers;
2. introducing competency-based curricula for TAVE courses and creating a Curriculum Development Centre;
3. introducing modular training for the informal sector for improved productivity and safety of small enterprises and workers;
4. establishing a Vocational Training Authority for rationalized development of the TAVE system for the entire country;
5. reorganizing TAVE system in DTAVE for more effective planning and implementation of human resource development programmes;
6. introducing entrepreneurial training to promote self-employment;
7. providing specialized and short term courses in agriculture;
8. providing opportunities for retraining;
9. establishing more training institutions;
10. promoting high technology research and development.
The Ministry of Education with its different types of training institutions plays a very active role in this endeavour. Equally active in this task are other ministries, departments and enterprises both in the public and private sectors with each of them implementing training programmes according to their needs. In the long run, however, concerted effort led by a national body, with legal status and resources, will be required to develop a well trained and flexible labour force to meet the demands of the emerging technologies in all productive, administrative and service areas. Thus, it is envisaged that technical and vocational education and training will continue to be given a high priority in Myanmar for sustainable human resource development.