Cover Image
close this bookPolicy Development and Implementation of Technical and Vocational Education for Economic Development in Asia and the Pacific - Conference Proceedings - UNESCO - UNEVOC Regional Conference (RMIT, 1997, 520 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentUNESCO UNEVOC Regional Conference 1996 - Steering Committee
View the documentResolutions
View the documentGuidelines for Policy Framework Development for TVE Asia Pacific Region
View the documentUNESCO UNEVOC Regional Conference 1996 - Conference Program
View the documentUNESCO UNEVOC Regional Conference 1996 - Conference Delegates
View the documentUNESCO UNEVOC Regional Conference 1996 - Conference Papers Listing
View the document'Vocational and Technical Training, Retraining and Job-Release Agreements: Public Policy and Employers Participation in Malaysian Manufacturing'
View the documentStrategic Planning in a Technical Education Environment - A Malaysian Experience
View the documentPiloting Tafe Accredited Courses on the Internet
View the documentEmerging Directions in Training of TVET Teachers and Trainers in the Asia-Pacific Region
View the documentReasonable Adjustment and Assessment: Strategies to Implement the Principles
View the documentDilemmas in the Pacific
View the documentPublic Expenditure on Education and Training in Australia: Some Basic Data
Open this folder and view contentsNew Policy Directions for Reforming Vocational and Technical Education in Korea
View the documentTechnical and Vocational Education in Australia's Aid Program
View the documentPolicy Development and Implementation to Address the TEVT Needs of Disadvantaged Groups
View the documentThe Role of Technical and Vocational Education on the National Economic Development of Cambodia and that of the Greater Mekong Subregion Economic Growth Zone
View the documentFrom Central Command to Doi Moi: Transforming and Renovating the Vietnamese Technical and Vocational Education System
View the documentCrossroads: Training Technical and Vocational Education Practitioners in Australia
View the documentPolicy Development for TVE
View the documentPlanning and Provision of Technical Education and Vocational Training in a Rapidly Changing Economy: The Case of Hong Kong
View the documentArticulation and other Factors Effecting Status - Implications for Policy Development of TVE
View the documentEssential Concepts for VET Regional Development
View the documentEmerging Directions in the Training of TVET Teachers and Trainers: The Situation in Fiji
View the documentDelivering Training to Industry Through the National Consortia Model: A Case Study
View the documentPolicy Development and Implementation of Technical and Vocational Education for Economic Development in Asia and the Pacific: Opening Address
View the documentStrengthening the Linkage of Industries and TVE Institutions
View the documentQuality Management of the Training System (Lotus Notes Groupware Versus the Paper Rat Race)
View the documentThailand: Development of Policies for the Provision of Quality TVE Programs
View the documentMaori in Education: Partnership to Overcome Disadvantage
View the documentTechnical and Vocational Education: Toward Economic and Policy Development in Japan
View the documentThe Current Status of Offering Vocational Elective Subjects in Malaysian Secondary Academic Schools
View the documentPolicy Development to Promote Linkages Between Labour Market Planning and Vocational and Technical Education Research in Vietnam
View the documentUNEVOC's Focus and Approaches to Address Current Trends and Issues in TVE in Asia and the Pacific
View the documentRestructuring of Secondary Education in Bangladesh
View the documentVocational Education: The Indonesian Experience
View the documentSession: Acceptance of TVE Qualifications and Mutual Recognition on a Regional Basis
View the documentTechnical and Vocational Education and Training: Towards the 21st Century
View the documentEmerging Directions in the Training of Technical and Vocational Teachers and Trainers in Singapore
View the documentA Plan to Improve and Coordinate Skills Training in Indonesia
View the documentImpact of Telikom Training Centre on Economic Development of Papua New Guinea.
Open this folder and view contentsEmerging Directions in the Training of Technical and Vocational Teachers and Trainers - Indonesia
View the documentThe History of the Preparation of Teachers for Vocational Education and Training at Griffith University
View the documentTechnical Education for the Hi-Tech Era

Technical and Vocational Education and Training: Towards the 21st Century

BRIAN STANFORD
CHIEF EXECUTIVE
DEPARTMENT FOR EMPLOYMENT,
TRAINING AND FURTHER EDUCATION
31 FLINDERS STREET
ADELAIDE SA 5000

UNESCO UNEVOC REGIONAL CONFERENCE
Melbourne, Australia
11 - 14 November 1996

POLICY DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN ASIA AND THE PACIFIC

ABSTRACT

This paper aims to highlight some of the key trends and issues that will influence the formulation and implementation of quality structures, systems and policies to address the global challenges of TVET as we head towards the 21st century.

COUNTRIES ARE EXPERIENCING THE EFFECTS OF CHANGE

Countries in the Asia-Pacific region, despite their obvious differences, are all experiencing the effects of change. Nations are working hard to improve their economic condition in this changing climate and the importance of a well-educated and skilled workforce is seen to be essential to this goal. The demands imposed by change require a country's workforce to keep learning, to constantly adapt, and to apply learning to new situations.

ISSUES CONFRONTING TVET

While the challenges across the region are diverse, key factors relating to the current situation of education and training must be considered when developing future systems and policies to improve the status, accessibility, quality and viability of TVET in the Asia-Pacific region.

THE TVET SECTOR AND NATIONAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

There are a number of notable worldwide trends which have significance for the economic context of TVET. The trend towards regional economic communities competing in a global market will put pressure on all countries to redesign their education and training systems in order to produce a world-class adaptive workforce. The efficient and effective planning and management of TVET is crucial to minimise the gap between training and employment.

HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT

It is clear that the development and utilisation of human resources is paramount to maximise economic growth. The human resource dimension has become critical as more governments look to their human resource base as the major asset in directing economies towards industrialisation.

An emphasis on social justice highlights the many sectors in the community who have been disadvantaged in their opportunities to participate successfully in education and training, particularly those who are physically, geographically, socially or culturally isolated. In a world that is becoming more 'technology aware', it is will also be crucial to examine the implications of technological changes as it relates to the human resource base and the nature, level and quality of skills required.

SOURCES OF REVENUE GENERATION - INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL

The viability of TVET systems depend on the quality and consistency of the financing arrangements that support the structures including the need to encourage investment. There is a general inability and unwillingness of governments to provide sufficient funding for tertiary education to satisfy the demand for places and the supply factor related to labour market forces, and it will therefore become crucial for institutions to explore the potential of internal and external sources of revenue generation.

PROMOTION OF CLOSER LINKS AND COLLABORATIVE ARRANGEMENTS WITH INDUSTRY

Promotion of stronger linkages between the TVET sector and business/industry are vital. The extent to which work-based training is integrated into program content relies on close involvement between institutions and industry. The integration of flexible delivery methodologies and collaborative arrangements will extend the range of ways in which training is provided and significantly enhance workplace training and assessment.

QUALITY SYSTEMS

Quality is a measure of how well TVET programs, services and products meet the stated and implied needs and expectations of clients and stakeholders. The quality approach refers to the management arrangements which are implemented including activities such as quality policy, objectives, responsibilities, planning, systems and processes, best practice initiatives, benchmarking and continuous improvement.

LIFELONG LEARNING

It is now widely recognised that education and training cannot and should not occur at only one time in the life of an individual. Lifelong learning is a comprehensive concept which extends throughout the lifespan of an individual to attain the fullest possible development in personal, social and professional achievement. There is pressure on the adult population to continually upgrade and develop new skills to match the changing nature of the economy, the workplace and society in general.

INTEGRATING TECHNOLOGIES IN TVET SYSTEMS

The escalating importance of emerging technologies and telecommunications has major implications for the TVET system. The very rapid developments arising from converging technologies have implications for work practices and the skills required for successful participation in regional economic communities. To remain competitive in the global marketplace, industry and commerce will need to acquire and apply these technologies. This will have direct implications on the TVET sector, which will need to develop learning environments which foster creativity and innovation in the development of computer applications, systems and technologies.

ROLE OF TVET AND SKILL DEVELOPMENT IN POVERTY ALLEVIATION

There is a growing inequality due to rising poverty and exclusion. Although population growth in developing countries is jeopardising the chances of better standards of living, there are many other factors which are contributing to a sense of social crisis affecting countries and regions.

Education and training can offer the opportunity to promote cohesion and can assist in reducing poverty by simulating income generation and job creation, particularly when complemented by broader strategies and a supportive economic environment.

FUTURE INITIATIVES AND STRATEGIES

The development of a planning framework to advance future strategies and priorities must be seriously considered if TVET is to remain a relevant and viable force within the context of regional and global market demands.

UNEVOC

The International Project on Technical and Vocational Education was launched in August 1992. UNEVOC'S roots go back to UNESCO's first International Congress for the Development and Improvement of Technical and Vocational Education (Berlin 1987). Two suggestions at that time were the seeds of UNEVOC. The first was for the development of technical and vocational education and the promotion of international cooperation in this field; the second was for the establishment of an international centre for research and development in technical and vocational education.

UNEVOC aims at developing and improving technical and vocational education by fostering the international exchange of ideas and experience on policy issues, strengthening national research and development capabilities, facilitating access to data bases and documentation, promoting innovations in staff development, and supporting international co-operative actions.

Adelaide Institute of TAFE and the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology are the two UNEVOC Centres in Australia. Both institutions have been heavily involved in a number of projects, case studies, workshops and networking meetings.

CONCLUSION

Many of the challenges and issues that we face are common to all countries across the region, and the answers are to be found in the structures, systems and policies that we employ in our own countries and in the regional contexts of TVET. It is therefore up to us to create a vision and formulate and implement the appropriate structures to help realise the 'preferred future' of TVET.

Brian K Stanford
Chief Executive
Department for Employment,
Training and Further Education
South Australia

UNESCO UNEVOC REGIONAL CONFERENCE
11-14 NOVEMBER 1996
MELBOURNE

TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING: TOWARDS THE 21ST CENTURY

Brian Stanford
Chief Executive
Department for Employment,
Training and Further Education
South Australia

RESPONDING TO THE TRIPLE CHALLENGE (S C EHRMANN)

· ACCESSIBILITY

- how to reach and educate the lull range of adults despite locution, schedules, cultural differences or physical disabilities

· QUALITY

- how to improve the life chances of learners

· COSTS

- how to achieve the first two objectives in the face of slow economic growth and other priorities

2

COUNTRIES ARE EXPERIENCING THE EFFECTS OF CHANGE CAUSED BY:

· expanding world markets
· drop in demand for some traditional products
· associated need to create alternative products and markets
· need to be competitive
· need to modernise industrial and commercial production processes
· need to implement more efficient work practices
· need to utilise new technologies

3

ISSUES CONFRONTING TVET

· effects of rapid and ongoing change
· patterns of job creation
· importance of a skilled and flexible workforce
· the life cycle of vocational skills
· new approaches to delivery through the acquisition and application of new technologies
· the status of TVET in the eyes of its 'stakeholders'

4

TVET AND NATIONAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

· regional economic communities competing in a global market

· countries need to identify future market opportunities through regional economic and industrial co-operation

· importance of a skilled and educated workforce in order for nations to advance

· vocational education and training must be integrated into national planning

5

There are pressures on countries to redesign their TVET systems to produce a skilled and adaptable workforce which will contribute to the competitiveness of their industries and businesses in national and global markets.

6

PLANNING

· efficient and effective planning and management of TVET is crucial to minimise the gap between training and employment

· planning tends to focus on supply rather than its responsiveness to the labour market

· planning must meet changes in employment structures and skills demand

· co-ordination required between formulation and implementation of economic policies and training policies

7

HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT

· human resource base is a major asset

· industrialisation calls for policies with a strong emphasis on the development of a skilled labour force

· improvements in human resource development essential to continued economic growth

· technological capabilities inherent in future development

· flexibility must be maintained for future national directions

8

SOURCES OF REVENUE GENERATION -INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL

· viability of TVET systems depends on the quality and consistency of the financing;, arrangements that support the structures

· given the crucial role of TVET in contributing to the economic development of a country through the skilling and upskilling of the workforce, pressure to reassess funding models ensuring more funds are directed to TVET must continue

9

· in developing countries, the government role as the main provider is inevitable, considering the training capacity of the private sector is underdeveloped

· as business and industry mature and strengthen, a proportion of the responsibility for providing training must gradually shift to the private sector

· however, the public system will continue as the major provider and must pursue improvements in its efficiency and effectiveness

10

Mechanisms to increase funding through promoting investment in training by the private sector must expand:

- training services provided on a fee-for-service basis are expected to increase;

- consultancy services also recognised as having potential to expand internal resource generation;

- facilities, faculties and students could be deployed to meet industry and community economic needs on a commercial or partly commercial basis.

11

Promotion of stronger links between the TVET sector and business/industry are vital. Without this collaboration, TVET would be unable to respond swiftly and effectively to the needs of industry and regional economic priorities.

12

FACTORS WHICH RELY ON CLOSER LINKS BETWEEN TVET SYSTEMS AND INDUSTRY

· competency-based training is intended to integrate components of the workplace with off-the-job training

· assessment in the workplace is becoming more prevalent

· flexible delivery methodologies extend the range of ways in which workplace training may be supported by public institutions

13

FORMS OF CO-OPERATION AND COLLABORATIVE ARRANGEMENTS

· initial planning stage of developing course proposals
· curriculum development
· delivery, evaluation and validation of programs
· assisting in the placement of students

14

QUALITY SYSTEMS

Quality is a measure of how well TVET programs, services and products meet the stated and implied needs and expectations of clients and stakeholders.

15

In order to respond to the challenges and guarantee the ongoing relevance of the TVET sector, it will be essential to implement quality systems, particularly in relation to teaching and learning activities, organisational structures and management, curriculum development, and resource optimisation.

16

THE QUALITY APPROACH REFERS TO ACTIVITIES SUCH AS:

· leadership
· management approaches
· quality policies
· organisational objectives
· responsibilities
· planning
· human resource development
· systems and processes
· best practice initiatives
· benchmarking
· continuous improvement

17

QUALITY OF LEARNING AND ARTICULATION

The quality of learning will be improved through the development of policies to facilitate articulation. Well-designed TVET courses will provide for articulation, both lateral and vertical.

A national framework needs to be developed to define all levels of education and training in order to facilitate the process of articulation.

18

LIFELONG LEARNING

It is now widely recognised that education and training cannot and should not occur at only one time in the life of an individual.

Lifelong learning is a comprehensive concept which incorporates formal, non-formal and informal learning extended throughout the lifespan of an individual to attain the fullest possible development in personal, social and professional life.

19

ACHIEVING A LIFELONG LEARNING CULTURE

· countries have a growing expectation that young people will undertake a specified period of formal training followed by further educational opportunities to keep pace with an increasingly complex work and social environment

· adults will continually need to upgrade and develop new skills to match the changing nature of the economy and the workplace

20

INTEGRATION OF TECHNOLOGIES

· technology will have a growing impact on the way nations produce goods, do business, communicate and learn

· changes being forced upon us by the demands of government, employers and communities

· competitive markets will force industries to embrace technology

· implications for successful participation in regional economic communities

· implications for work practices

21

TVET AND TECHNOLOGY

· new technologies are being integrated into TVET systems and processes technology influencing delivery methodologies, administrative systems, planning and management

· application to date has been at best uneven, both in quantitative and qualitative terms

· change being forced on us by the demands of governments, industries, employers and communities

22

“...the first countries to enter the information society will reap the greatest rewards. They will set the agenda for all who must follow. By contrast, countries which temporise or favour half-hearted solutions, could, in less than a decade, face disastrous declines in investment and a squeeze on jobs.”

Bangemann et al (1994)

23

Future international competitiveness in trade and the increases expected in national productivity will only occur by having a skilled and flexible workforce capable of meeting the rapid technological changes of the next triennium and beyond.

24

'Computing' a narrow view of technology.

A country's economic, ideological, political and social circumstances will influence the development and application of technology.

25

TECHNOLOGY IS IMPACTING ON THE WAYS IN WHICH TVET IS DELIVERED

· innovative and flexible technology-based delivery systems now becoming a reality in many countries

· students accessing training in the workplace, home, study/tutorial centres and remote communities

· TVET has a responsibility to achieve increased access - technologies have the potential to provide greater access

· highly-trained teachers critical in meeting the cliallenges of technology

26

'How to use' technology must be incorporated in all areas of curriculum.

...a curriculum draws upon the past but is shaped according to the future. Above all, It embodies a vision of the future, of the world that is to come.

D Hamilton, 1990

27

Role of technology in TVET must be exploited, not just to enhance the control the learner has over the learning environment and provide a range of ways to suit different learning styles, but to maintain the human elements of learning such as communicating initiating, critical thinking, experimenting and discovering - this is the challenge faced by curriculum writers and educators.

28

ACCESS

· sectors in the community have been disadvantaged in their opportunities to participate in TVET
· physically, geographically, socially or culturally isolated
· alternative approaches to traditional education delivery is needed to redress their disadvantage

29

ROLE OF TVET & SKILL DEVELOPMENT IN POVERTY ALLEVIATION

· in some countries there is a growing inequality due to rising poverty and exclusion

· in many developing countries, only a small percentage of the population are able to enter formal sector occupations

· the large sector of informal workers cannot be viewed as a transitory phase in economic development which will eventually 'go away'

30

Improving the productivity and subsequently the income of informal workers must continue to be a high priority.

The role of educational institutions must therefore be broadened to improve training opportunities for those not able to access the formal sector.

31

The role of TVET in reducing poverty and influencing income distribution is contingent upon a range of factors including:

- individual characteristics
- socio-economic background
- labour market forces
- wage structures
- health and living conditions

32

Education and training can offer the opportunity to:

- promote cohesion by combining the virtues of integration with respect for individual rights; and
- stimulate income generation and job creation if complemented by broader strategies in a supportive economic environment.

33

FUTURE INITIATIVES AND STRATEGIES

· develop national policies to strengthen and improve TVET systems
· develop and implement quality systems
· provide ongoing professional development for teachers/trainers
· co-ordinate labour market planning to identify directions, capacity and priorities
· promote lifelong learning
· plan capacity expansion to meet the demands of economic priorities and labour market forces

34

· identify mechanisms to assist institutions to investigate internal and external sources of revenue generation

· promote closer links between the TVET sector and industry

· encourage cross-utilisation of infrastructure and staff between the TVET sector and industry

· respond to the emergence of new technologies

· develop curriculum aligned to the needs of industry

35

UNEVOC

· UNEVOC is an international project on technical and vocational education and was launched in August 1992

· UNESCO invites its Member States and Specialised Agencies of the United Nations system to play an active role in the promotion and implementation of this venture

36

UNEVOC'S ROOTS CO BACK TO AN INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS IN BERLIN (1987) WHICH SUGGESTED:

· the development of technical and vocational education and the promotion of international co-operation in this field

· the establishment of an international centre for research and development in technical and vocational education

37

UNEVOC FOCUSES ON EXCHANGING INFORMATION, NETWORKING AND INTERNATIONAL CO-OPERATION AMONG SPECIALISTS IN TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AIMED AT:

· fostering the international exchange of ideas, experience and studies on policy issues
· strengthening national research and development capabilities
· facilitating access to data bases and documentation
· promoting innovations in staff development
· supporting international co-operative actions

38

Two institutions were nominated as Australian UNEVOC centres:

- Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology; and
- Adelaide Institute of TAFE.

39

ADELAIDE INSTITUTE UNEVOC CENTRE HAS BEEN INVOLVED IN A NUMBER OF PROJECTS INCLUDING:

· hosting a curriculum workshop in 1994 for the development of an exemplar curriculum on 'Entrepreneurial Skills in Small Business' - a follow up meeting was subsequently hosted by China

· hosting an international forum on 'Distance Education and Open Learning'

· involvement in the International Advisory Council Meeting in Paris 1994

40

ADDITIONAL UNEVOC PROJECTS INCLUDE:

· RMIT was responsible for the preparation of detailed Case Studies in TVET in the following countries:

- Australia, Bangladesh, China, Fiji, India, Indonesia, Iran, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, Thailand and Vietnam.

These Case Studies provide a snap shot of each country together with major issues confronting each of these countries.

41

· Bhopal Workshops 1994 - focused on the writing of Curriculum Guidelines and on strategies to develop policy and direction for the TVET sector

· Auckland Networking Meeting - reviewed the Curriculum Processes in each country and examined policy development

· UNESCO/Colombo Plan Staff College Joint Conference 1995 - a joint regional workshop on 'New Perspectives in Curriculum Development'

· Networking Workshops 1995-96 - national and subregional workshops focusing on curriculum development, research & policy

42

CONCLUSION

It may seem that the challenges facing the TVET sector are too many and too difficult, but in striving to develop strategies to deliver accessible, quality-driven and cost effective services, we are already a long way towards meeting these challenges.

43

Earlier in this presentation, we pondered the questions raised by Ehrmann's triple challenges. His prediction is gloomy for those who cannot respond:

“If not met, this triple challenge will lead to a gradual deterioration.... those countries that do not respond may find it more and more difficult to educate their citizens and maintain a vital national economy and life.... in short, those who fail to respond have much to lose and those who respond creatively and successfully have much to gain.”

44

Dr Peter Elyard at the Organisational Futures Conference (1994) talked about the 'preferred future':

“An alternative way to proceed is to envision and articulate a 'preferred future', the future we would like to create for ourselves: what should or ought the future be like. This is more likely to be realised simply because those who make the scenario have a vested interest in helping realise it.... a reality tested 'preferred future' based on assessment of both the external and internal environments of file organisation concerned.”

45

It is therefore up to us to create this vision and formulate and implement the appropriate structures and systems to help realise the 'preferred future' of TVET.

46