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close this bookPolicy Development and Implementation of Technical and Vocational Education for Economic Development in Asia and the Pacific - Conference Proceedings - UNESCO - UNEVOC Regional Conference (RMIT, 1997, 520 p.)
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View the documentIntroduction
View the documentUNESCO UNEVOC Regional Conference 1996 - Steering Committee
View the documentResolutions
View the documentGuidelines for Policy Framework Development for TVE Asia Pacific Region
View the documentUNESCO UNEVOC Regional Conference 1996 - Conference Program
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View the document'Vocational and Technical Training, Retraining and Job-Release Agreements: Public Policy and Employers Participation in Malaysian Manufacturing'
View the documentStrategic Planning in a Technical Education Environment - A Malaysian Experience
View the documentPiloting Tafe Accredited Courses on the Internet
View the documentEmerging Directions in Training of TVET Teachers and Trainers in the Asia-Pacific Region
View the documentReasonable Adjustment and Assessment: Strategies to Implement the Principles
View the documentDilemmas in the Pacific
View the documentPublic Expenditure on Education and Training in Australia: Some Basic Data
Open this folder and view contentsNew Policy Directions for Reforming Vocational and Technical Education in Korea
View the documentTechnical and Vocational Education in Australia's Aid Program
View the documentPolicy Development and Implementation to Address the TEVT Needs of Disadvantaged Groups
View the documentThe Role of Technical and Vocational Education on the National Economic Development of Cambodia and that of the Greater Mekong Subregion Economic Growth Zone
View the documentFrom Central Command to Doi Moi: Transforming and Renovating the Vietnamese Technical and Vocational Education System
View the documentCrossroads: Training Technical and Vocational Education Practitioners in Australia
View the documentPolicy Development for TVE
View the documentPlanning and Provision of Technical Education and Vocational Training in a Rapidly Changing Economy: The Case of Hong Kong
View the documentArticulation and other Factors Effecting Status - Implications for Policy Development of TVE
View the documentEssential Concepts for VET Regional Development
View the documentEmerging Directions in the Training of TVET Teachers and Trainers: The Situation in Fiji
View the documentDelivering Training to Industry Through the National Consortia Model: A Case Study
View the documentPolicy Development and Implementation of Technical and Vocational Education for Economic Development in Asia and the Pacific: Opening Address
View the documentStrengthening the Linkage of Industries and TVE Institutions
View the documentQuality Management of the Training System (Lotus Notes Groupware Versus the Paper Rat Race)
View the documentThailand: Development of Policies for the Provision of Quality TVE Programs
View the documentMaori in Education: Partnership to Overcome Disadvantage
View the documentTechnical and Vocational Education: Toward Economic and Policy Development in Japan
View the documentThe Current Status of Offering Vocational Elective Subjects in Malaysian Secondary Academic Schools
View the documentPolicy Development to Promote Linkages Between Labour Market Planning and Vocational and Technical Education Research in Vietnam
View the documentUNEVOC's Focus and Approaches to Address Current Trends and Issues in TVE in Asia and the Pacific
View the documentRestructuring of Secondary Education in Bangladesh
View the documentVocational Education: The Indonesian Experience
View the documentSession: Acceptance of TVE Qualifications and Mutual Recognition on a Regional Basis
View the documentTechnical and Vocational Education and Training: Towards the 21st Century
View the documentEmerging Directions in the Training of Technical and Vocational Teachers and Trainers in Singapore
View the documentA Plan to Improve and Coordinate Skills Training in Indonesia
View the documentImpact of Telikom Training Centre on Economic Development of Papua New Guinea.
Open this folder and view contentsEmerging Directions in the Training of Technical and Vocational Teachers and Trainers - Indonesia
View the documentThe History of the Preparation of Teachers for Vocational Education and Training at Griffith University
View the documentTechnical Education for the Hi-Tech Era

Technical Education for the Hi-Tech Era

Presented to the UNESCO Conference on Vocational Education and Training,
Melbourne, Australia, 11-14 November 1996

Jiro YOSHIO
Tokyo Gakugei University

1 NEEDS OF NEW APPROACH FOR THE HI-TECH ERA

Asia and Pacific countries are facing a so called hi-tech revolution. Especially the industries in these areas which are changing to hi-tech industrialization as well as internationalization.

Especially this region, employment is growing fast and having the largest numerical increase around and after the new century. Industries of this region consist of multinational enterprises including so called hi-tech industries that need to acquire highly capable and problem solving type of human resource.

To sustain the hi-tech revolution and survive the megacompetition in the world markets their products are becoming sophisticated and value added. The human resource development system must be changed accordingly. There is a need to provide appropriate types of education and training programmes not only at secondary and tertiary education but also in lifelong education into the future.

Since high tech industries require technology innovation, the technician must participate in technical innovation. This means there is a need for continuing training programmes to maintain hi-tech industries. If learners want to study there should be a learning opportunity, whenever, wherever, whoever, they are. In addition, training programmes must be revised and up-dated all the time. There will be the need for training programmes for every new industry innovation.

Since recent advancement of the digital technology it is possible to share the resources, experience, expertise which individual countries have and to offer the programmes to the persons whenever, wherever, whoever.

Hi-tech industries need training to cope with diversity and specification according to the industries requirement. This means contents of education and training for technical education are spread over broad subject matters and go into very specific detail. Each training courses might be held over a shorter period than a traditional course with less number of trainees.

As the result of implementation of distance study programme, industries will be able to have more problem solving expertise capability and mobility of personnel.

2 OVERVIEW OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING

This writer has a view of progress of technical education and training of the future. (See Attachment A)

CURRENT (Traditional type teaching and learning); It is expected that technical education and training might be carried out in schools and institutions. The focus of curriculums is on getting a general and basic knowledge and skills in technical subjects. But the current education and training system faces serious problems in implementing its curriculum such as “Acute shortage of Teaching and Learning resources” and “Inadequacy of teachers competency”. This situation indicates, it is not possible to meet the demand for hi-tech industry's needs.

NEAR FUTURE (Era of hi-tech industry); Hi-tech industries require specific human resources able to fulfil their specific roles. To meet the rapidly advancing technology in industry, various types of courses with specific objectives in the distance programme will be needed. The curriculum will need to comprehensive as well as specific.

Combining the technical advancement of digital technology such as computer, communication and multimedia, teaching and learning methods and resources would be drastically changed from current situation. The topics might be more narrowly specialized and the group size of learners would be much smaller. Learners would study either in a school, institution, at home, or their work place. This means that self-learning type distance study would be more common and learners would study using mainly package media as well as network media.

LONG FUTURE (Era of hi-tech society); Lifelong learning has more meaning in Asian communities which face so called hi-tech society. Those countries are reaching a certain socio-economic standard such as PQLI (Physical Quality Life Index), educational standard and human resource development programme as well as industrial technologies. Such a hi-tech society needs to provide further education and training programmes for the self-directed person who will need to acquire additional education and training for their own need to challenge the new tasks in a industry or social activities or personal interests. Combining the broad casting (TV, radio) and computer networking technology (like the Internet will make it possible for learners to access various kind of programmes which would be provided by schools, institutions or even by industries. Learners will be able to select the most appropriate self learning programme of multimedia distance education by themselves.

This paper mainly will discuss the establishment of multimedia distance study systems for technical education.

3 FEATURES OF PROGRAMMES

The feature of the programmes should be hi-tech learning packages that allow students to work as their own pace. In addition to these, the courseware of programmes should be easily revisable, adaptable, easy to use and maintainable, as well as economical to operate. As the result of study, it is expected that the person who studies such a programme will attain a degree of mobility and possibly up-grade of their educational back ground. It is likely that the learners will study at home or the office, even in school or institutions whenever time is available.

The expenditure for programmes would be another matter to consider, as it would be very economical and should deliver high cost/performance.

· NEEDS OF CONSTRUCTION OF FRAMEWORK

In many cases, lifelong learning programmes are run without an established framework. But it is absolutely necessary to set up a framework of the programme to deliver it in a logical way. (This framework likes the Periodic Law or Linnen's Classification).

· COMPETENCY BASED MODULE SYSTEM

To implement the lifelong distance education and training programmes for hi-tech society, Competency Based Module System will need to be applied. Basically the module system was developed by the ILO for training skill development, but nowadays it has advanced to higher education. Modules are essentially self-contained, self-instructional packages, with learning paced by each learner according to his or her individual needs and ability. A module covers either a single element of subject matter or a group of content elements forming a discrete unit of subject matter or area of skill. A module has clearly defined objective. (Modules from design to implementation - G. Rex Meter, Colombo Plan Staff College)

· FLEXIBLE MODULAR DISTANCE LEARNING

Considering individual constraints and job requirements of working professionals, most of the continuing education programs are to be given on-the-job which would benefit the employees as well as the employers. To accommodate variable requirements such programs should be flexible in nature. The flexibility is in selecting the contents, time and duration of study, place of study, strategy for study. The flexibility will help and motivate every individual to update and upgrade himself. The whole program should be divided into small programmes which represent a specific competency of knowledge and skill. This may provide the learner continuous achievement motivation. (Flexible Modular Distance Learning for Updating and Upgrading Technical Teachers in TVET Institutions-, Vol. 22 No. 4 Dec. 1995 CPSC QUARTERLY)

4 TECHNOLOGY FOR MULTIMEDIA DISTANCE EDUCATION

Recent drastic advancement of the digital technologies such as the computer, communication and multimedia technology has made it possible to develop a teaching and learning package for distance study. This is the main reason why it became possible to develop a self learning type of distance education programme, which made it possible to provide the programmes for learners when ever, what ever, who ever and people can join the study programmes according to their needs or interest.

Nowadays, using computer, to produce multimedia self-learning courseware using computer is not at all difficult or expensive. Applying digital technologies, course developers could collect or exchange necessary materials such as courseware and clipmedia from other course developers or databases. As a result, courseware could be modified, revised and improved to meet the new course objectives. It would be possible for learners to access the programme through either package media or network media such as Internet and it will be possible to study using very simple cheap machine connecting to TV as the screen. The user doesn't need special knowledge and skills or training on computers and networking.

These technologies and available as inexpensive gadgets (especially on the learner's side and are the main thrust of materializing the self-learning type distance education programmes.

To fulfil the requirement of the feature of these programmes, needed technologies are classified as follows:

· Computer technology: Nowadays micro processing unit of computer advanced to perform enough function to process multimedia resources. In addition the current MPU may contain many functions such as graphics and communication as well as compression of data. Operation systems are advancing as well. Moreover computer systems are advancing to gave users access through the net to a server which works as host. As a result, many computers have become more powerful and user friendly than before. In addition, the price of computers and operation costs of computers are declining drastically.

· Communication technology: Internet will contribute to promote the programmes. The hardware and software for Internet is available with less amount to access necessary information The cost of using Internet is almost negligible. Course providers and others can offer and share information and course wares very easily.

If an Internet terminal has a groupware function this will make it possible for learners to participate in a group work flexible way. Using synchronous group ware, learners can work together and work on problem solving study together. This means using Internet, learners can study in an interactive manner when ever, where ever and who ever as long as they have willingness to study.

· Multimedia technology: multimedia is the best technology to implement curriculum in an efficient way in the field of technical education. Advancement of multimedia technology means it is easier to produce courseware and self-learning system as well as maintain, revise and improve them. Nowadays, a courseware producer can develop multimedia courseware using software for wordprocessing.

Regardless of the different operating system, learners can use course material using any kind of machine. Course developers and learners can also provide information and material for others too. This means, current technology doesn't require users of courseware to be concerned the about different kinds of hardware (operation system) and software connected to a machine.

5 AN EXAMPLE OF PACKAGE

There are a tremendous number of examples for teaching and learning activities of using computer technology applied for education and training. Many of those examples would be possible to apply for building up distance education and training through the Internet or package media.

This writer also developed a sample of self-learning type of multimedia teaching and learning package for industrial education. For instance in this case, the teacher puts almost all clipmedias into a database and can project the desired clips on screen of either the computer or a TV set. After the database is developed, it is possible for a teacher to make a self-learning package. What teachers should do is to make an action plan of their teaching. Based on the action plan (learning package) for a lecture, the teacher compiles the learning package and students would be able to study by themselves in a multimedia environment.

This will be possible to apply to variety kind of education and training programme even for tutorial type programmes which are expected for hi-tech industries.

In addition, the advantages of developing this kind of self-learning system are described as, - Cost performance,- Ease of handling, - Effectiveness, - Efficiency, -Collecting and disseminating information and material, - Cooperative work.

There are more specific favourable points described as follows:

- courseware developers can develop self-learning packages according to their own needs,

- free from commercial based software, so anybody can develop, disseminate and use them and can share their products,

- very easy to develop and there is strong possibility of expansion or enlargement of the data-base and strong possibility of applying in Internet environment,

- to develop the courseware each development site doesn't need expensive computers but centers need a set of multimedia computer,

- to use the self-learning package at study sites, there is no need to have computer, to have a computer technician, only CD- ROM player and TV set.

- even if computer hardware is remodelled or software is revised, most important clipmedia and courseware would be reproduced, it means the most important part would be saved for ever.

- using this development system, it is very easy to store the clipmedia and other material in Internet server and make it possible to create self-learning system in Internet.

The digital technologies are still advancing daily. As it is described above, it is quite possible to develop self-learning type courseware as long as the developer is familiar with the contents without having a knowledge of computer.

This means, producing multimedia courseware, transmitting the courseware by a programme producers and to get self-learning type courseware by a learner are not at all difficult in technical aspect.

Combining these computer related technologies and the competency based modular system as instructional technology has paved the way to materialize self-learning programmes for the distance study.

6 NEEDS OF NEW MECHANISM OF INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

A large number of teaching and learning resources are required to support technical education, and considering the magnitude of the task, it is very important that there be cooperation at the national, regional and international levels to set up a large database and also to develop and disseminate instructional resources.

Based on the experiences of multimedia self-learning packages for technical education, this writer states and urges the need for coordinated and cooperative efforts to develop and disseminate teaching and learning resources among the concerned individuals or groups, and at the national, regional or inter-national level.

· Sharing Roles among international organizations: To materialise this project, establishing an international support system would be essential. Since, many international organizations and aid agencies are working for human resource development, to build up education and training programmes for lifelong learning with global base, the following matters would be handled by a certain international organization.

· Clearing House: Collect and disseminate the information related to technician education and training with global views. This house would provide information not only for programme developers but programme sponsors would refer to the clearing house to enrich the programme.

· Copyright: To develop teaching and learning resources, it would be necessary for clipmedia such as illustration and computer graphics, movies and picture as well as coursewares.

Some of them would be produced by the course developers but many of such clip would be found around. To utilize such available items would be possible to use for developing course ware if copyright would be clear. (It is not necessary to clear the copyright but clear to get approval of using the items for educational purposes)

· Research and development: To develop and improve the frameworking, teaching and learning resources, examine the instructional methodology and establishing the evaluation system and so on, concerning institutions and international must take in charge of research work.

· Technical support: To help programme providers in technical aspects giving information and services related to computer technology for developing course ware and course evaluation as well as guidance and consultancy.

· Coordination: Technician education and training programme would be run by cooperation of many concerned bodies and the project would not only deal with technician field but also relate with other fields such as Natural science, and humanities. This aspect would a coordinator to make a bridge inside the project as well as to bridge to other projects.

This supporting work helps both the course providers and developers as well as learners.

REFERENCES

1) Jiro Yoshio, “TEACHING & LEARNING RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT” Conference on Vocational Education And Training For The 21st Century. OECD, Paris. 1994

2) Jiro Yoshio, “NEEDS OF INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION FOR DEVELOPING MULTIMEDIA T/LRS FOR INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION”, Conference on Technology Education in School around Asian Countries. 1995

3) Jiro Yoshio, Akira Yamada. Yoshiro Saito, “DEVELOPMENT OF MULTIMEDIA TEACHING AND LEARNING RESOURCES FOR TECHNICIAN EDUCATION” EDUCOMP '96, INDIA. 1996

Jiro YOSHIO
Tokyo Gakugei University
yoshi@ific.or.jp

Attachment A

FEATURE OF STUDY

STYLES OF STUDY

ERA

COURSEWARE DEV.

PROBLEMS & ISSUES

Self-direction Individualized study
(None framework)

Lifelong distance learning system

HI-TECH SOCIETY

Schools Institutions Industries Individuals

Infrastructure Accreditation



Television + Network


Selflearning/ Group study
(Framework)

Multimedia distance study system

HI-TECH INDUSTRY

Schools Institutions Publishers Teaching staff

Curriculum Clipmedia database Worksharing Coordination



Multimedia Package/Network



Group study
(Course of study)

Study at Schools/ Institutions

CURRENT

Publishers Teachers

Shortage of T/LRs Teachers competency Resource sharing system



Audio/Visual