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close this bookInternational Workshop on Curriculum Development in Technical and Vocational Education - Final Report - Turin, Italy - 30 August-3 September 1993 (UNEVOC, 1993, 24 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentI. INTRODUCTION
View the documentII. MAIN WORKING DOCUMENT: CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT IN TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION
View the documentIII. SOME ASPECTS OF CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT, IMPLEMENTATION AND EVALUATION
View the documentIV. SUMMARY OF COUNTRY PAPERS - CASE STUDIES
View the documentV. SYNTHESIS OF COUNTRY PAPERS
View the documentVI. MAJOR ISSUES AND POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS (GUIDELINES)
View the documentVII. FUTURE STRATEGIES AND RECOMMENDATIONS
View the documentAPPENDIX 1: LIST OF PARTICIPANTS

IV. SUMMARY OF COUNTRY PAPERS - CASE STUDIES

This section summarizes the presentations made by the participants describing their country’s experience of curriculum development, implementation, assessment, evaluation and validation. This helped the discussion on various aspects of curriculum development in Technical and vocational education, models and strategies followed, modes of funding, collaboration between training institutions and industry (including various national bodies) etc highlighted in the keynote paper and summarised above. The following is a summary of the presentations made:

CZECH REPUBLIC

(1) The technical and vocational education system followed in the Czech Republic, despite numerous partial amendments, still bears some characteristics of a country with a centrally run economy. A positive feature of contemporary situations is the considerable openness of the education system to receive external stimuli and a propensity to modify a traditional approach in favour of implementing new educational qualifications.

(2) The Ministry of Education has the prime responsibility for the development and approval of the curricula developed and implemented in various institutions. The actual problem-solving of development of the curricula is delegated to individual departments of the Ministry depending on their orientations.

(3) The Ministry of Education has two research institutes which engage in various aspects of education and training at basic and secondary schools. It is professed that these research institutes participate in the development of flexible competency based curriculum that helps to train people for different skills demanded by various job situations. Changes in curricula are implemented on the basis of actual economic and social developments.

(4) It is understood that development and implementation of curricula in Technical and Vocational subjects requires enhanced involvement of employers’ associations, enterprises and Chambers of Commerce and injection of large amounts of money, which if not available, could affect the quality of training provided.

DENMARK

(1) In Denmark, during the last decade, the labour force has increased considerably, especially due to women entering the world of work. The political background for developing the educational system must be considered in connection with increasing unemployment. This is mainly due to general economical problems and introduction of technology within all sectors of society, which has resulted in reduced manpower.

(2) The Danish system of vocational education and training (including further vocational education) is considered to be of high quality in which the social partners actively participate. The vocational education and training system is based on a principle of dual system. The further vocational education system is college-based. Vocational education and training, further vocational education and upper-secondary education all take place in the same technical colleges. This is to secure an overall high quality of training in education and developing curricula in conformity with the Danish decentralised system.

(3) The system of Curriculum Development is controlled centrally with tremendous local (college level) flexibility. A well defined system of quality assurance and compatibility amongst various college developments is practised under the authority of the Ministry of Education. The process of curriculum development has positive contributions from employers and employees participating in various advisory councils and committees. This has helped in the development of curricula to meet a variety of training needs. Similarly, the technical colleges are advised by local social partners.

(4) The Ministry of Education includes well organized inspectorates with an associated infrastructure to maintain and monitor the quality of skills training provided in the country.

(5) Technical colleges are responsible for implementation of curricula. They can seek advice from consultants who are part of the Ministry of Education.

(6) The country has a Council for Vocational Training whose membership is shared by employers and employees. This Council deals with the overall governing of the Vocational Education system (skilled level), and advises the Ministry on general matters. For each group of courses, there is a committee (composed of representatives of employers and employees) making decisions and advising the Ministry concerning objectives and structure of Vocational Education and Training courses. Additionally, technical colleges also have their own Local Education Committees to advise them on the educational programmes provided.

(7) Denmark has well structured mechanism for curriculum development and implementation, which is appropriately financed by the Ministry of Education.

(8) The process of decentralization whereby the responsibility for curriculum development is passed further down from the Ministry to the regions/technical colleges is still going on. The political aim is to develop colleges with expertise able to play an important part in curriculum development in a very flexible system.

GERMANY

(1) The philosophy of imparting technical and vocational education in Germany is that vocational training should be closely linked, as much as possible, to practice and should take place to a substantial degree in companies and administrative organisations. In the Dual System of vocational training, young people receive training in companies for three to four days per week and for one or two days in a vocational school.

(2) Access to vocational training is open to all. It is not conditional on any specific school-learning certificates. Approximately 70% of all school leavers go into training in the Dual System.

(3) The Dual System of vocational training pre-supposes the joint responsibility and cooperation of all those involved in the world of training and work viz employers, employees, Government and education authorities who fully co-operate in every possible way. Such co-operation is subject to legal regulations and has proved very successful.

(4) Advanced vocational training takes place in an open system in which training is offered by various organisations (companies, associations, schools etc). To meet training demands on a long-term basis binding legal directives are issued by the Federal Ministry of Education and Science.

(5) The responsible Ministry, e.g. the Federal Ministry of Economics, issues training regulations with the approval of the Federal Ministry of Education and Science.

(6) The Federal Institute for Vocational Training prepares the training regulations. This involves participation from employers’ associations, trade unions and the relevant Federal Ministries. The training regulations are harmonized with general school curricula in the regions.

(7) The aim of the training regulations is, despite the differences between the training needs of the individual companies, to ensure standardised Vocational Training in companies with equivalent requirements throughout the companies.

(8) New training regulations, changing content of curricula, need for assessment for better examination system require better qualifications of instructors, teachers and other personnel involved in the development and implementation of Technical and vocational education and training. Considerable importance is being given in Germany to improve such qualifications and help the staff to upgrade themselves.

(9) Information technology is being progressively introduced in the Curricula to prepare trainees for a variety of changing work situations. In addition to skilled competencies, social and methodological considerations are also covered in the curricula.

GREECE

(1) A profile of the educational system existing in the country was explained and the status of technical and vocational education pointed out.

(2) Curriculum development is the responsibility of the pedagogical institute established under the auspices of the Ministry of Education.

(3) Most of the available technical and vocational education curricula is broad-based and comprehensive. The subject areas covered include, in addition to technical, business and economics-related subjects.

(4) In 1992, the Government legislated the national system for vocational Education and training under which the Organisation of Vocational Education and Training (OVET) was set up. OVET is responsible for all levels of Technical and Vocational Education in Greece and has established 32 Vocational Training Institutes to provide training according to regional needs.

(5) Through the activities of OVET, the employers, trade unions and other social partners play an active role in curriculum lanning, development, evaluation and creditation.

(6) To improve the quality of vocational qualifications and training imparted, new assessment system for certification is being developed.

(7) A number of revisions are being made in the currently-available curricula with a view to implementing competency-based curricula, both for initial and further training.

(8) In Greece there is an infrastructure to provide technical teacher training with a view to upgrading the technical and pedagogical skills of the instructors.

(9) To assist various committees involved in the development and delivery of curricula, occupational profiles are being established and the industry, as well as other social partners involved in such revisions.

JAPAN

(1) The modern education law in Japan is established on the basis of the principle of equal opportunities for all.

(2) Upper secondary school courses may be broadly classified into two types: general and specialized. The latter may be further classified: agricultural, industrial, commercial, fisheries, home economics, nursing, science, mathematics, english and other courses.

(3) Colleges of Technology were introduce in 1967 in order to provide lower secondary school graduates with five-year continuous education. Special training colleges and other schools play a unique role throughout the entire Japanese education system. These establishments offer a variety of practical Vocational and Technical Education programmes in response to the diverse demands of a changing society.

(4) The Ministry of Education lays down national standards for curricula at all school levels in order to ensure optimum national level of education based on the principle of equal educational opportunities for all. Broad guidelines for the objectives and standard content of each school subject are specified in the study course for each of the four school levels. The study course is prepared by the Ministry of Education and the recommendations of the Curriculum Council are promulgated by the Minister.

(5) The Curriculum Council advises the Ministry of Education on Curriculum Development as well as its organization and implementation.

(6) In order to assist the development of the trainees in the new emerging technological areas and to lay more emphasis on basic and essential knowledge, a number of revisions have been made in the existing curricula. It is hoped that such revisions will help the technical and vocational education system graduates to cope positively with the changes in society.

MEXICO

(1) Technical education in Mexico is coordinated by the Assistant Secretariat for Technical Education and Research which provides a number of activities in the country in order to provide various types of educational services including advising on technical and vocational education.

(2) The Technical Education and Research Assistant Secretariat is assisted by various private and social enterprises in developing curricula for technical and vocational education and training.

(3) Formal training involving classroom instruction, is the responsibility of the General Directorate of Training Centres. This Directorate also assists in the provision of extension programmes for upgrading of skills.

(4) Emphasis is given on monitoring the quality of training provided and recommendations are made by various bodies to improve training programmes.

(5) Efforts are made to develop training standards for implementation in order to enhance the quality of training provided.

(6) The country places considerable emphasis on human resource development and hence efforts are being made to improve the occupational profile required by the industrial sector.

(7) Both the Federal as well as State Governments contribute towards the financing of technical and vocational education.

TANZANIA

(1) Tanzania has a variety of institutes offering technical and vocational education and training in the country. The Government is putting in efforts to develop training standards for implementation in order to improve the quality of training provided at all levels.

(2) To meet growing demand for technical and vocational education in the country, the Government has set-up the National Technical Training Advisory and Co-ordinating Council (NATTAC).

(3) Financial constraints seem to affect curriculum implementation. Inadequacy of teaching materials, text books and equipment severely affect curriculum delivery. Steps have been taken to arrest the situation. Teachers and other experts have been encouraged to write books and use locally available materials for training.

(4) Curriculum Development for Technical and Vocational Education and Training in Tanzania is administered by three ministries: the Ministry of Education and Culture, the Ministry of Labour and Social Welfare and the Ministry of Higher Education, Science and Culture.

(5) The National Technical Training Advisory and Coordinating Council (NATTACC) ensures that technical programmes are adequate, and are efficiently and economically organised to meet the nation’s needs and that they are appropriate in form and content in relation to the needs of the economy bearing in mind the nation’s objectives and priorities.

UGANDA

(1) The basic structure of formal education in Uganda consists of four levels namely: primary, lower secondary, upper secondary and university. The four levels form a single track structure of 7-4-2-3 years with minor variations in length of particular courses after the primary cycle.

(2) Technical and Vocational Education (TVE) consists of technical institutions under the Ministry of Education and Sports. Vocational Training Centres are under the Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs. Technical institutions consist of technical schools at the lower level, technical institutes, technical colleges and Uganda Polytechnic Kyambogo (UPK) at the apex. These institutions train artisans, craftsmen and technicians.

(3) Efforts are being made in Uganda to review all the educational programmes and processes with a view to addressing the needs of the country. In TVE, efforts are being directed towards rehabilitating the existing infrastructure, re-structuring the sub-sector and reviewing curricula to align these with production-based requirements.

(4) Curriculum development in Uganda is centralized and is the responsibility of the National Curriculum Development Centre (NCDC), which was established in 1974. NCDC is mandated to play a pivotal role in improving the quality of education and re-designing the courses at various levels (other than the universities) to meet the objectives of technical and vocational education. Due to limited physical, human and financial resources, NCDC is not able to meet its objectives fully.

(5) Course curricula for vocational education are, however, the responsibility of the Directorate of Industrial Training and the Industrial Training Council (ITC). The Directorate carries out a needs assessment through occupation surveys and job analysis while course curricula are done, based on the analysis, by a team of technical experts. ITC on the other hand ensures quality efficiency and relevance of the programmes.

(6) In addition to early training, curriculum is also available for skills upgrading as the country is embarking upon a policy of vocationalization. Current practices in curriculum development in Uganda are being recognized as being inadequate as these tend to exclude other social partners, especially the employers. Industry/training institution partnership is being encouraged through seminars and workshops.

(7) Problems affecting progress in the process of curriculum development include lack of adequate local capacity in terms of trained and motivated Curriculum developers, teachers and insufficient financial resources.

(8) Due to the developing economic situation in Uganda, there are a number of issues that the country needs to address with a view to developing a curriculum which would precisely meet the requirements of all sectors of society. Different socio-economic situations make these phenomena all the more difficult.

(9) Technical and Vocational Education (TVE) is recognized by the Government as being the key to the nation’s economic, scientific and technological development. The main objective of TVE is, therefore, seen as the need to train the nation’s workforce to meet the demands of the world of work including self-employment.

(10) During discussions it was obvious that approach to curriculum development needs to be continuously re-adjusted to address the changing needs of the economy.