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close this bookInternational Workshop on Curriculum Development in Technical and Vocational Education - Final Report - Turin, Italy - 30 August-3 September 1993 (UNEVOC, 1993, 24 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentI. INTRODUCTION
View the documentII. MAIN WORKING DOCUMENT: CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT IN TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION
View the documentIII. SOME ASPECTS OF CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT, IMPLEMENTATION AND EVALUATION
View the documentIV. SUMMARY OF COUNTRY PAPERS - CASE STUDIES
View the documentV. SYNTHESIS OF COUNTRY PAPERS
View the documentVI. MAJOR ISSUES AND POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS (GUIDELINES)
View the documentVII. FUTURE STRATEGIES AND RECOMMENDATIONS
View the documentAPPENDIX 1: LIST OF PARTICIPANTS

V. SYNTHESIS OF COUNTRY PAPERS

1. Description of the Education System: the countries represented have a system of education in which technical and vocational education is introduced at the senior secondary level unless government policy is to deliberately offer this type of education as a part of community education (formal or non-formal) training.

2. Technical and Vocational Education System: most countries use technical and vocational education curricula for initial/further training, upgrading skills etc. Training is either exclusively provided in an educational establishment or through partnership with industry/enterprises (Dual System).

3. Responsibility for Curriculum Development: from the case studies presented, it was obvious that responsibility for curriculum development predominantly rests with the Ministry of Education or a central organization in the country. To facilitate training at regional levels and to meet local needs, the responsibility may be passed on to regional directorates or specially developed units. In each case, an attempt is made to co-ordinate the process of curriculum development for the sake of uniformity of training in the country. Social partners (employers’ organizations/trade unions/professional bodies etc.) assist in this process.

4. Quality Assurance: experience shows that it is very vital to ensure that there are no regional variations or other factors which may affect the quality of training provided, although, the system should offer flexibility in approach to meet regional training needs. Some countries have specially established inspectorates to control quality of delivery.

5. System of Implementation: most curricula are implemented in schools/industry through well developed resources (equipment/trained instructors and facilities). This requires substantial investment which can only be made by well developed nations.

6. Role of Various Bodies - Social Partners: participation by various socio-economic groups has helped to develop and effectively implement curricula.

7. Constraints: financial and organizational aspects of a country’s development can impose constraints on the process of curriculum development and the quality of delivery.

8. Future Trends: there seems to be an agreement to follow a system of curriculum development that offers competency-based training. This requires considerable investment in equipment and staff development. Due to limited resources at the disposal of certain governments, such an approach may be difficult to afford and hence traditional methods of delivery may have to be relied upon for vocational education and training.